In man, phenylalanine is an essential amino acid which must be supplied in the dietary proteins. Once in the body, phenylalanine may follow any of three paths. It may be (1) incorporated into cellular proteins, (2) converted to phenylpyruvic acid, or (3) converted to tyrosine. Tyrosine is found in many high protein food products such as soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds. Tyrosine can be converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). Depicted in this pathway is the conversion of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate (via amino acid oxidase or tyrosine amino transferase acting on phenylalanine), the incorporation of phenylalanine and/or tyrosine into polypeptides (via tyrosyl tRNA synthetase and phenylalyl tRNA synthetase) and the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine via phenylalanine hydroxylase. Deficiencies in this enzyme are responsible for the commonest form of phenylketonuria (PKU) in humans. This reaction functions both as the first step in tyrosine/phenylalanine catabolism by which the body disposes of excess phenylalanine, and as a source of the amino acid tyrosine. The decomposition of L-tyrosine begins with an α-ketoglutarate dependent transamination through the tyrosine transaminase to para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The next oxidation step catalyzed by p-hydroxylphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase creates homogentisate. In order to split the aromatic ring of homogentisate, a further dioxygenase, homogentistate-oxygenase, is required to create maleylacetoacetate. Fumarylacetate is created by the action maleylacetoacetate-cis-trans-isomerase through rotation of the carboxyl group created from the hydroxyl group via oxidation. This cis-trans-isomerase contains glutathione as a coenzyme. Fumarylacetoacetate is finally split via fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase into fumarate (also a metabolite of the citric acid cycle) and acetoacetate (3-ketobutyroate).