Transcription is the mechanism by which a template strand of DNA is utilized by specific RNA polymerases to generate one of the three different classifications of RNA. These 3 RNA classes include messenger RNAs (mRNAs), transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs). mRNAs are the genetic coding templates used by the translational machinery to determine the order of amino acids incorporated into an elongating polypeptide in the process of translation. tRNAs form covalent attachments to individual amino acids and recognize the encoded sequences of the mRNAs to allow correct insertion of amino acids into the elongating polypeptide chain. rRNAs are assembled, together with numerous ribosomal proteins, to form the ribosomes. All RNA polymerases are dependent upon a DNA template in order to synthesize RNA. The resultant RNA is, therefore, complimentary to the template strand of the DNA duplex and identical to the non-template strand. In eukaryotic cells there are 3 distinct classes of RNA polymerase, RNA polymerase (pol) I, II and III. Each polymerase is responsible for the synthesis of a different class of RNA. Once the mRNA transcript is generated, it is available for translation through the action of the ribosome and activated amino-acid tRNA carriers. For protein synthesis, a succession of tRNA molecules charged with appropriate amino acids have to be brought together with an mRNA molecule and matched up by base-pairing through their anti-codons with each of its successive codons. The amino acids then have to be linked together to extend the growing protein chain, and the tRNAs, relieved of their burdens, have to be released. This whole complex of processes is carried out by a giant multimolecular machine, the ribosome, formed of two main chains of RNA, called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and more than 50 different proteins. The synthesis of proteins is known as translation. Translation occurs in the cytoplasm where the ribosomes are located. Ribosomes are made of a small and large subunit which surrounds the mRNA. In translation, messenger RNA (mRNA) is decoded to produce a specific polypeptide according to the rules specified by the trinucleotide genetic code. This uses an mRNA sequence as a template to guide the synthesis of a chain of amino acids that form a protein. Translation proceeds in four phases: activation, initiation, elongation and termination (all describing the growth of the amino acid chain, or polypeptide that is the product of translation). In activation, the correct amino acid is joined to the correct transfer RNA (tRNA). While this is not technically a step in translation, it is required for translation to proceed. The amino acid is joined by its carboxyl group to the 3’ OH of the tRNA by an ester bond. When the tRNA has an amino acid linked to it, it is termed “charged”. Initiation involves the small subunit of the ribosome binding to 5’ end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF), other proteins that assist the process. Elongation occurs when the next aminoacyl-tRNA (charged tRNA) in line binds to the ribosome along with GTP and an elongation factor. Termination of the polypeptide happens when the A site of the ribosome faces a stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA). When this happens, no tRNA can recognize it, but releasing factor can recognize nonsense codons and causes the release of the polypeptide chain.