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Showing 1 - 10 of 49831 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000054 View Pathway

Pyruvate Metabolism

Pyruvate is an intermediate compound in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. It can be formed from glucose via glycolysis or the transamination of alanine. It can be converted into Acetyl-CoA to be used as the primary energy source for the TCA cycle, or converted into oxaloacetate to replenish TCA cycle intermediates. Pyruvate can also be used to synthesize carbohydrates, fatty acids, ketone bodies, alanine, and steroids. In conditions of inssuficient oxygen or in cells with few mitochondria, pyruvate is reduced to lactate in order to re-oxidize NADH back into NAD+ Pyruvate participates in several key reactions and pathways. In glycolysis, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase in an highly exergonic and irreversible reaction. In gluconeogenesis, pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase are needed to catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to PEP. In fatty acid synthesis, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex decarboxylates pyruvate to produce acetyl-CoA. In gluconeogenesis, the carboxylation by pyruvate carboxylase produces oxaloacetate. The fate of pyruvate depends on the cell energy charge. In cells or tissues with a high energy charge pyruvate is directed toward gluconeogenesis, but when the energy charge is low pyruvate is preferentially oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the TCA cycle, with generation of 15 equivalents of ATP per pyruvate. The enzymatic activities of the TCA cycle are located in the mitochondrion. When transported into the mitochondrion, pyruvate encounters two principal metabolizing enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase (a gluconeogenic enzyme) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). With a high cell-energy charge, acetyl-CoA, is able allosterically to activate pyruvate carboxylase, directing pyruvate toward gluconeogenesis. When the energy charge is low CoA is not acylated, pyruvate carboxylase is inactive, and pyruvate is preferentially metabolized via the PDH complex and the enzymes of the TCA cycle to CO2 and H2O.


Pw000047 View Pathway

Vitamin K Metabolism

Vitamin K describes a group of lipophilic, hydrophobic vitamins that exist naturally in two forms (and synthetically in three others): vitamin K1, which is found in plants, and vitamin K2, which is synthesized by bacteria. Vitamin K is an important dietary component because it is necessary as a cofacter in the activation of vitamin K dependent proteins. Metabolism of vitamin K occurs mainly in the liver. In the first step, vitamin K is reduced to its quinone form by a quinone reductase such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase. Reduced vitamin K is the form required to convert vitamin K dependent protein precursors to their active states. It acts as a cofactor to the integral membrane enzyme vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase (along with water and carbon dioxide as co-substrates), which carboxylates glutamyl residues to gamma-carboxy-glutamic acid residues on certain proteins, activating them. Each converted glutamyl residue produces a molecule of vitamin K epoxide, and certain proteins may have more than one residue requiring carboxylation. To complete the cycle, the vitamin K epoxide is returned to vitamin K via the vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme, also an integral membrane protein. The vitamin K dependent proteins include a number of important coagulation factors, such as prothrombin. Thus, warfarin and other coumarin drugs act as anticoagulants by blocking vitamin K epoxide reductase.


Pw122325 View Pathway

Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis)

The Bloch pathway, named after Konrad Bloch, is the pathway following the mevalonate pathway occurring within the cell to complete cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is a necessary metabolite that helps create many essential hormones within the human body. This pathway, combined with the mevalonate pathway is one of two ways to biosynthesize cholesterol; the Kandutsch-Russell pathway is an alternative pathway that uses different compounds than the Bloch Pathway beginning after lanosterol. The first three reactions occur in the endoplasmic reticulum. Lanosterol, a compound created through the mevalonate pathway, binds with the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to become 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Moving to the next reaction, 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol utilizes the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to create 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase is used one last time in this pathway, converting 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol into 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol. Entering the inner nuclear membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol is catalyzed by a lamin B receptor to create 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol. Entering the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol, with the help of methyl monooxygenase 1 is converted to 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. The enzyme methyl monooxygenase 1 uses 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. This reaction is repeated once more, using 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol and methyl monooxygenase 1 to create 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Briefly entering the endoplasmic reticulum, 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol then uses sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehyrogenase to catalyze into 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol. Back in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where the pathway will continue on for the remaining reactions, 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol combines with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create 4a-methylzymosterol. 4a-Methylzymosterol joins the enzyme methylsterol monooxgenase 1 to result in 4a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol uses methylsterol monooxygenase 1 to convert to 4a-formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol proceeds to use the same enzyme used in the previous reaction: methylsterol monooxygenase 1, to catalyze into 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehydrogenase is used alongside 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one (also known as zymosterone). Zymosterone (5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one) teams up with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create zymosterol. Zymosterol proceeds to use the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta(8),delta(7)-isomerase to catalyze into 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol. The compound 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol then joins lathosterol oxidase to convert to 7-dehydrodesmosterol. 7-Dehydrodesmosterol and the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase come together to create desmosterol. This brings the pathway to the final reaction, where desmosterol combines with delta(24)-sterol reductase to finally convert to cholesterol.


Pw000023 View Pathway

Fatty Acid Metabolism

Fatty acids constitute a large energy source for the body. The cellular membrane is also made up of fatty acids. During starvation times, fatty acids can provide energy to humans for numerous days. Fatty acid metabolism is also known as beta-oxidation. During metabolism, acetyl CoA is produced that can then enter the citric acid cycle. When ATP is needed, ATP may be generated by increasing fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acid metabolism is essentially the reverse reaction of fatty acid synthesis.


Pw000009 View Pathway

Ammonia Recycling

Ammonia can be rerouted from the urine and recycled into the body for use in nitrogen metabolism. Glutamate and glutamine play an important role in this process. There are many other processes that act to recycle ammonia. asparaginase recycles ammonia from asparagine. Glycine cleavage system generates ammonia from glycine. Histidine ammonia lyase forms ammonia from histidine. Serine dehydratase also produces ammonia by cleaving serine.


Pw000028 View Pathway

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone bodies are consisted of acetone, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. In liver cells' mitochondria, acetyl-CoA can synthesize acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate; and spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate will form acetone. Metabolism of ketone body (also known as ketogenesis) contains several reactions. Acetoacetic acid (acetoacetate) will be catalyzed to form acetoacetyl-CoA irreversibly by 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 that also coupled with interconversion of succinyl-CoA and succinic acid. Acetoacetic acid can also be catalyzed by mitochondrial D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase to form (R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid with NADH. Ketogenesis occurs mostly during fasting and starvation. Stored fatty acids will be broken down and mobilized to produce large amount of acetyl-CoA for ketogenesis in liver, which can reduce the demand of glucose for other tissues. Acetone cannot be converted back to acetyl-CoA; therefore, they are either breathed out through the lungs or excreted in urine.


Pw000167 View Pathway

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

The biosynthesis of fatty acids primarily occurs in liver and lactating mammary glands. The entire synthesis process which produces palmitic acid occurs on a multifunctional dimeric protein Fatty Acid Synthase (FA) in the cytosol. The production of palmitic acid can be summarized as the successive addition of two carbons to an initial acetyl moiety primer. After 7 cycles palimitic acid is released. The synthesis starts with the sequential transfer of a primer substrate, acetyl-CoA, to the nucleophilic serine residue of the acyltransferase domain of FA. The acetyl moiety is then transferred to the Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) domain of FA, then finally to the active site of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. A chain extender substrate, molonyl-CoA, is transferred to the nucleophilic serine residue of the acyltransferase domain and subsequently to the ACP domain. The acetyl moiety is extend by a condensation reaction, catalysed by the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain, that produces a new Carbon-Carbon bound, this reaction is coupled to a decarboxylation resulting in the production of carbon dioxide. Subsequently beta-ketoacyl condensation product is reduced to a saturated acyl moiety through the step wise action on the beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl dehydrase and enoyl reductase domains respectively. This saturated acyl moiety is then transfer back to the active site of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain, another molonyl-CoA is loaded and the process repeats. The addition of molonyl moieties occurs 7 times after which the final product is released by that action of thioesterase domain. The final product is 16 carbon long palmitic acid.


Pw122279 View Pathway

Kidney Function - Distal Convoluted Tubule

The distal convoluted tubule of the nephron is the part of the kidney between the loop of henle and the collecting duct. When renin is released from the kidneys, it causes the activation of angiotensin I in the blood circulation which is cleaved to become angiotensin II. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex and release of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland. When in the circulation, vasopressin eventually binds to receptors on epithelial cells in the distal convoluted tubule. This causes vesicles that contain aquaporins to fuse with the plasma membrane. Aquaporins are proteins that act as water channels once they have bound to the plasma membrane. As a result, the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule changes to allow for water reabsorption back into the blood circulation. In addition, sodium, chlorine, and calcium are also reabsorbed back into the systemic circulation via their respective channels and exchangers. However, aldosterone is a major regulator of the reabsorption of these ions as well, as it changes the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule to these ions. As a result, a high concentration of sodium, chlorine, and calcium in the blood vessels occurs. The reabsorption of ions and water increases blood fluid volume and blood pressure.


Pw000030 View Pathway

Malate-Aspartate Shuttle

The malate-aspartate shuttle system, also called the malate shuttle, is an essential system used by mitochondria, that allows electrons to move across the impermeable membrane between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix. The electrons are created during glycolysis, and are needed for oxidative phosphorylation. The malate-aspartate shuttle is needed as the inner membrane is not permeable to NADH or NAD+, but is permeable to the ions that attach to malate. When the malate gets inside the membrane,the energy inside of malate is taken out by creating NADH from NAD+, which regenerates oxaloacetate. NADH can then transfer electrons to the electron transport chain.


Pw000143 View Pathway

Inositol Metabolism

The carbocyclic polyol inositol (otherwise known as myo-inositol) has a significant role in physiological systems as many secondary eukaryotic messengers derive their structure from inositol. Examples of secondary messengers derived from inositol include inositol phosphates, phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) lipids. Inositol is abundant in many commonly consumed foods such as bran-rich cereals, beans, nuts, and fruit (particularly cantaloupe, melons, and oranges). It can also be synthesized by the body through the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate into mho-inositol under the following pathway: (1) glucose-6-phosphate undergoes isomerization due to the action of inositol-3-phosphate synthase (ASYNA1) which produces myo-inositol 3-phosphate; (2) myo-inositol 3-phosphate undergoes dephosphorylation via the action of inositol monophosphatase (IMPase 1) to produce myo-inositol. From this point, myo-inositol can move through multiple different fates depending on the secondary messenger being synthesized. For phosphatidyliositol, phosphatidylinositol synthase generates it with the substrates CDP-diacylglycerol and myo-inositol. Phosphatidyliositol can be modified further to generate phosphatidylinositol phosphate lipids via the action of class I, II and III phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI 3-kinases). Other messengers (i.e. inositol phosphates) can be produced with the phospholipase C-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol phosphates or with the action of other enzymes that remove or add phosphate groups.
Showing 1 - 10 of 49831 pathways