Quantitative metabolomics services for biomarker discovery and validation.
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Flurouracil Transport Floxuridine Nuclear Transporter 5- Fluorodeoxyuridine Monophosphate Nuclear Transporter Capecitabine transporter Thymidylate synthase Thymidylate synthase Soluble calcium- activated nucleotidase 1 Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 6 Soluble calcium- activated nucleotidase 1 Uridine 5'- monophosphate synthase UMP-CMP kinase Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 6 Thymidine phosphorylase Ribonucleoside- diphosphate reductase large subunit Ribonucleoside- diphosphate reductase subunit M2 Nucleoside diphosphate kinase 6 Thymidine kinase, cytosolic Thymidine phosphorylase Thymidylate synthase Thymidine 5'-triphosphate 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate Fluorouracil Fluorouracil Floxuridine Floxuridine 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate Capecitabine Capecitabine dUMP 5,10-Methylene-THF 5-Thymidylic acid Dihydrofolic acid ATP dTDP ADP H2O Pi ATP ADP H2O Pi Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate 5-Fluorouridine monophosphate PPi ATP ADP 5-Fluorouridine diphosphate ATP ADP 5-Fluorouridine triphosphate Deoxyribose 1-phosphate Pi H2O 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine diphosphate ATP ADP ATP ADP Uridine triphosphate Fe3+ 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate 5,10-Methylene-THF Thioredoxin Thioredoxin disulfide DNA Synthesis DNA Synthesis Calcium Magnesium Calcium Magnesium Magnesium Magnesium Fraudulent RNA 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate forms a complex with thymidylate synthase and 5, 10-Methylene-THF. This prevents the conversion of dUMP to 5-Thymidylic acid (dTMP) which is further converted to dTTP, an important precursor for DNA synthesis. DNA synthesis cannot occur as thymidine 5'-triphosphate isn't being produced. This causes the cell to die as it cannot undergo replication, proliferation or differentiation. Fluorouracil is converted to 5-Fluorouridine triphosphate through a series of phosphorylation steps. 5-Fluorouridine triphosphate is incorporated into RNA in place of uracil creating fraudulent RNA that cannot synthesize the correct proteins. Nucleus Cytosol Extracellular Space 5-Fluorouridine triphosphate prevents uridine triphosphate (UTP) from being incorporated in RNA. Fluorouracil is also converted into 5-fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate through phosphorylation and reduction. 5-Fluorodeoxyuridine triphosphate can be incorporated into DNA synthesis and replication creating fraudulent DNA. This causes the cell to die as it cannot synthesize DNA peroperly.