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The high concentration of norepinephrine in the synapse readily activates alpha 1A and alpha 2A receptors on myocytes Inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate receptor type 1 Protein kinase C alpha type Voltage- dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A Voltage- dependent L-type calcium channel subunit beta-1 Voltage- dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2 Myosin light chain kinase, smooth muscle Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor Gq protein signaling cascade Sodium- dependent noradrenaline transporter Phospholipase C Myosin LC-P Myosin light chain 3 Synaptic vesicular amine transporter Voltage- dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1 Voltage- dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2 Voltage- dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B Calmodulin-1 Serine/threonine- protein phosphatase PP1-beta catalytic subunit Dopamine beta- hydroxylase Calmodulin-1 Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate Norepinephrine Pseudoephedrine Pseudoephedrine Ca+ Norepinephrine Ca+ Ca+ Ca+ Norepinephrine Ca+ Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate Dopamine Ascorbic acid O2 Dehydroascorbic acid H2O Pyrroloquinoline quinone Copper Ca+ Diacylglycerol Muscle Contraction Muscle Relaxation Magnesium Calcium Calcium Manganese Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Increased calcium binds readily to calmodulin to activate myosin light chain kinase There is an overall increase in calcium levels in the cytosol caused by the activation of the Gq signaling cascade Cytosol Myosin binds to actin causing muscle contraction Activation of myosin light chain kinase leads to high concentration of myosin LC-P which causes contractions of the muscles Smooth Muscle Myocyte Pseudoephedrine inhibits sodium dependent noradrenaline transporters which prevents the reuptake of norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron from the synapse and causes an accumulation of norepinephrine in the synapse. Pseudoephedrine also activates alpha adrenergic receptors. The muscle contractions cause vasoconstriction which leads to decongestion of the nose and sinuses. Myosin Actin Vasoconstriction
ITPR1 PRKCA CACNA1A CACNB1 CACNA2D2 MYLK ADRA1A GNAQ SLC6A2 PLCB1 MYL3 MYL3 SLC18A2 CACNA2D1 CACNA2D2 CACNA1B CALM1 PPP1CB DBH CALM1 Inositol 1,4,5- trisphosphate Norepinephrine Pseudoephedrine Pseudoephedrine Calcium Norepinephrine Calcium Calcium Calcium Norepinephrine Calcium Phosphatidylinositol 4,5- bisphosphate Dopamine Ascorbic acid Oxygen Dehydroascorbic acid Water Calcium Diacylglycerol Muscle Contraction Muscle Relaxation