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Squalene monooxygenase Lanosterol synthase Squalene synthase Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase Endoplasmic Reticulum Tolnaftate 4,4-Dimethylcholesta- 8,14,24-trienol Ergosterol Tolnaftate Squalene O2 NADPH (S)-2,3-Epoxysqualene H2O NADP Lanosterol Farnesyl pyrophosphate NADPH NADP PPi O2 NADPH Formic acid NADP H2O Steroid Biosynthesis FAD Magnesium Heme Fungal cell Tolnaftate inhibits Squalene monoxygenase, an enzyme essential in the synthesis of Ergosterol. Squalene monooxygenase is earlier in the pathway than the enzyme inhibited by other antifungal drugs The inhibition of Squalene monooxygenase prevents the synthesis of Ergosterol which is essential to fungal cell membrane integrity. This leads to cell permiability and eventually cell death. Terbinafine is commonly applied topically as a cream The inhibition of squalene monooxygenase causes a buildup of squalene which is toxic to the fungal cell. Tolnaftate diffuses through the cell membrane of fungal cells. Bud of Fungal Cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum ERG1 ERG7 ERG9 ERG11 Tolnaftate 4,4- Dimethylcholesta- 8,14,24- trienol Ergosterol Tolnaftate Squalene Oxygen NADPH (S)-2,3- Epoxysqualene Water NADP Lanosterol Farnesyl pyrophosphate NADPH NADP Pyrophosphate Oxygen NADPH Formic acid NADP Water Steroid Biosynthesis
ERG1 ERG7 ERG9 ERG11 Endoplasmic Reticulum