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Ca+ Sodium- dependent noradrenaline transporter Tropomyosin alpha-1 chain Tropomyosin beta chain Beta-1 adrenergic receptor Voltage- depenent L-type calcium channel Voltage- depenent L-type calcium channel Voltage- depenent L-type calcium channel Ryanodine receptor 2 cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit Synaptic vesicular amine transporter Sodium- dependent dopamine transporter Voltage- dependent P/Q-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1A Voltage- dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B Sodium/calcium exchanger 1 Voltage-gated T-type calcium channel (ICaT) Voltage-gated T-type calcium channel (ICaT) Dopamine beta- hydroxylase Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha Dopamine Ca+ Norepinephrine Norepinephrine Ca+ Norepinephrine Norepinephrine Dopamine Dopamine Ca+ Ca+ Ca+ Na+ Na+ Ca+ Ca+ Ca+ Dopamine Ascorbic acid O2 Dehydroascorbic acid H2O ATP H2O Ca+ ADP Pi Ca+ Pyrroloquinoline quinone Copper Ca+ Troponin Troponin G-Protein Signaling Cascade Muscle Contraction Cytosol Postganglionic Neuron An increase in dopamine causes an increase in the sythesis of Norepinephrine The inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake receptors by Dopamine causes more norepinephrine to accumulate in the synapse, causing the continual activation of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor When the neuron fires, the accumulation of norepinephrine synthesized from dopamine, as well as norepinephrine already stored in the sympathetic neuron endings is released into the synapse Synapse Synaptic Vesicle Cardiac Myocyte Sarcoplasmic Reticulum High calcium binds to troponin to displace tropomyosin from the myosin binding sites on the actin filaments Myosin and actin bind allowing the filaments to slide closer together, resulting in muscle contraction Actin Filament Myosin Filament The beta-1 adrenergic receptor is coupled to and activates the G-protein signalling cascade. The G-protein signalling cascade activates protein kinase which activates calcium channels on the membrane, resulting in calcium influx. High calcium activates the ryanodine receptor on the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Cytosol High cytosolic calcium leads to muscle contraction Once it reaches the heart, it agonizes the beta-1 adrenergic receptor on the cell membrane of myocytes. T-tubule Endogenous Dopamine inhibits norepinephrine reuptake
Calcium SLC6A2 TPM1 TPM2 ADRB1 CACNA1C CACNA2D2 CACNB1 RYR2 PRKAR1A SLC18A2 SLC6A3 CACNA1A CACNA1B SLC8A1 CACNA1H CACNA1G DBH ATP2A2 PRKACA Dopamine Calcium Norepinephrine Norepinephrine Calcium Norepinephrine Norepinephrine Dopamine Dopamine Calcium Calcium Calcium Sodium Sodium Calcium Calcium Calcium Dopamine Ascorbic acid Oxygen Dehydroascorbic acid Water Adenosine triphosphate Water Calcium Adenosine diphosphate Phosphate Calcium Calcium Troponin Troponin G-Protein Signaling Cascade Muscle Contraction