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Showing 111 - 120 of 605359 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Name and Description Pathway Class Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000003 View Pathway

Glutamate Metabolism

Glutamate is one of the non-essential amino acids that is produced by the body. Glutamate is precursor for many nucleic acids and proteins in addition to its role in the central nervous system. It is an excitatory neurotransmitter and has a role in neuronal plasticity, affecting memory and learning. Glutamate plays a role in numerous metabolic pathways. Dysfunctional glutamate metabolism may cause disorders such as: gyrate atrophy, hyperammonemia, γ-hydoxybutyric aciduria, hemolytic anemia, and 5-oxoprolinuria.


Pw000008 View Pathway

Amino Sugar Metabolism

Amino sugars are sugar molecules containing an amine group. They make up many polysaccharides including, glycosaminoglycans or mucopolysaccharides.


Pw000046 View Pathway

Glucose-Alanine Cycle

The glucose-alanine cycle—also referred to in the literature as the Cahill cycle or the alanine cycle—involves muscle protein being degraded to provide more glucose to generate additional ATP for muscle contraction. It allows pyruvate and glutamate to be transported out of muscle tissue to the liver where gluconeogenesis takes place to supply the muscle tissue with more glucose as mentioned previously. To initiate the cycle, muscle and tissues that catabolize amino acids for fuel generate amino groups—most commonly in the form of glutamate—through the process of transamination. These amino groups are transferred via alanine aminotransferase to pyruvate (a product of glycolysis) to form alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate. Alanine subsequently moves through the circulatory system to the liver where the reaction previously catalyzed by alanine aminotransferase is reversed to produce pyruvate. This pyruvate is converted into glucose through the process of gluconeogenesis which subsequently is transported back to the muscle tissue. Meanwhile, glutamate dehydrogenase in the mitochondria catabolizes glutamate into ammonium. Ammonium moves on to form urea in the urea cycle.


Pw000630 View Pathway

Aerobic Glycolysis (Warburg Effect)

The Warburg Effect refers to the phenomenon that occurs in most cancer cells where instead of generating energy with a low rate of glycolysis followed by oxidizing pyruvate via the Krebs cycle in the mitochondria, the pyruvate from a high rate of glycolysis undergoes lactic acid fermentation in the cytosol. As the Krebs cycle is an aerobic process, in normal cells lactate production is reserved for anaerobic conditions. However, cancer cells preferentially utilize glucose for lactate production via this “aerobic glycolysis”, even when oxygen is plentiful. The Warburg Effect is thought to be the result of mutations to oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes. It may be an adaptation to low-oxygen environments within tumours, the result of cancer genes shutting down the mitochondria, or a mechanism to aid cell proliferation via increased glycolysis. Proliferation may occur due to the accumulation of glycolytic intermediates (which lead to the production of nucleotides, amino acids, and fatty acids) after the final enzymatic reaction of glycolysis (phosphoenolpyruvate into pyruvate) is slowed down. This reaction produces lactic acid which leads to a low pH microenvironment and the lactate shuttle can activate angiogenesis factors from surrounding cells. The Warburg Effect involves numerous pathways, including growth factor stimulation, transcriptional activation, and glycolysis promotion.


Pw000015 View Pathway

Caffeine Metabolism

Caffeine is obtained from diet including coffee and other beverages and is absorbed in the stomach and small intestine. In the liver, the cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme system and specifically CYP1A2 metabolizes caffeine into paraxanthine to increase lipolysis and increase free fatty acids and glycerol levels in the blood, theobromine to dilate blood vessels and increase urine volume and theophylline which relaxes bronchi smooth muscles. In the lysosome, these metabolites undergo further metabolism into methyluric acids before being excreted in the urine. There is genetic variability in the metabolism of caffeine due to the polymorphism of CYP1A2. This variability can affect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of caffeine and may affect an individual's consumption.


Pw000166 View Pathway

Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate Degradation

2-oxobutanoate, also known as 2-Ketobutyric acid, is a 2-keto acid that is commonly produced in the metabolism of amino acids such as methionine and threonine. Like other 2-keto acids, degradation of 2-oxobutanoate occurs in the mitochondrial matrix and begins with oxidative decarboxylation to its acyl coenzyme A derivative, propionyl-CoA. This reaction is mediated by a class of large, multienzyme complexes called 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes. While no 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complex is specific to 2-oxobutanoate, numerous complexes can catalyze its reaction. In this pathway the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex is depicted. All 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase complexes consist of three main components: a 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase (E1) with a thiamine pyrophosphate cofactor, a dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (E2) with a lipoate cofactor, and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) with a flavin cofactor. E1 binds the 2-oxobutanoate to the lipoate on E2, which then transfers the propionyl group to coenzyme A, producing propionyl-CoA and reducing the lipoate. E3 then transfers protons to NAD in order to restore the lipoate. Propionyl-CoA carboxylase transforms the propionyl-CoA to S-methylmalonyl-CoA, which is then converted to R-methylmalonyl-CoA via methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. In the final step, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase acts on the R-methylmalonyl-CoA to produce succinyl-CoA.


Pw000027 View Pathway

Homocysteine Degradation

Homocysteine is an amino acid and homologue of cysteine that appears in the body as a result of the degradation of methionine. In mammals, homocysteine is used to biosynthesize cysteine via the following pathway. First the enzyme cystathionine beta-synthetase irreversibly condenses homocysteine with L-serine, forming L-cystathionine. The L-cystathionine is then cleaved by cystathionine gamma-lyase, producing 2-oxobutanoate, L-cysteine, and ammonia. The 2-oxobutanoate is further broken down via the 2-oxobutanoate degradation pathway, producing citric acid cycle intermediates, while the L-cysteine goes to the cysteine metabolism pathway. The homocysteine degradation pathway composes a part of the larger methionine metabolism pathway.


Pw000041 View Pathway

Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal Oxidation

Phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid, is an important component of fatty acid intake, occuring in meat, fish and dairy products. Due to its methylation, it cannot be a substrate for acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and cannot enter the mitochondrial beta oxidation pathway. Phytanic acid is instead activated to its CoA ester form by a CoA synthetase to phytanoyl-CoA, where it can begin the first cycle of alpha oxidation. Phytanoyl-CoA is a substrate for a specific alpha-hydroxylase (Phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase), which adds a hydroxyl group to the α-carbon of phytanic acid, creating the 19-carbon homologue, pristanic acid. Pristanic acid then undergoes further metabolism through beta oxidation.


Pw000142 View Pathway

Tyrosine Metabolism

The tyrosine metabolism pathway describes the many ways in which tyrosine is catabolized or transformed to generate a wide variety of biologically important molecules. In particular, tyrosine can be metabolized to produce hormones such as thyroxine and triiodothyronine or it can be metabolized to produce neurotransmitters such as L-DOPA, dopamine, adrenaline, or noradrenaline. Tyrosine can also serve as a precursor of the pigment melanin and for the formation of Coenzyme Q10. Additionally, tyrosine can be catabolized all the way down into fumarate and acetoacetate. This particular pathway for tyrosine degradation starts with an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent transamination reaction of tyrosine, which is mediated through the enzyme known as tyrosine transaminase. This process generates p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. This aromatic acid is then acted upon by p-hydroxylphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase which generates the compound known as homogentisic acid or homogentisate (2,5-dihydroxyphenyl-1-acetate). In order to split the aromatic ring of homogentisate, a unique dioxygenase enzyme known as homogentisic acid 1,2-dioxygenase is required. Through this enzyme, maleylacetoacetate is created from the homogentisic acid precursor. The accumulation of excess homogentisic acid and its oxide (named alkapton) in the urine of afflicted individuals can lead to a condition known as alkaptonuria. This genetic condition, also known as an inborn error of metabolism or IEM, occurs if there are mutations in the homogentisic acid 1,2-dioxygenase gene. After the breakdown of homogentisate is achieved, maleylacetoacetate is then attacked by the enzyme known as maleylacetoacetate-cis-trans-isomerase, which generates fumarylacetate. This isomerase catalyzes the rotation of the carboxyl group created from the hydroxyl group via oxidation. This cis-trans-isomerase uses glutathione as a coenzyme or cofactor. The resulting product, fumarylacetoacetate, is then split into acetoactate and fumarate via the enzyme known as fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase through the addition of a water molecule. Through this set of reactions fumarate and acetoacetate (3-ketobutyroate) are liberated. Acetoacetate is a ketone body, which is activated with succinyl-CoA, and thereafter it can be converted into acetyl-CoA, which in turn can be oxidized by the citric acid cycle (also known as the TCA cycle) or used for fatty acid synthesis. Other aspects of tyrosine metabolism include the generation of catecholamines. In this process, the enzyme known as tyrosine hydroxylase (or AAAH or TYH) catalyzes the conversion of tyrosine to L-DOPA. The L-DOPA can then be converted via the enzyme DOPA decarboxylase (DDC) to dopamine. Dopamine can then be converted to 3-methoxytyramine via the action of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). Dopamine can also be converted to norepinephrine (noradrenaline) through the action of the enzyme known as dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH). Norepinephrine can then be converted to epinephrine (adrenaline) through the action of phenyethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT). Catecholamines such as L-DOPA, dopamine and methoxytyramine are produced mainly by the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and by neuronal cells found in the brain. For example, dopamine, which acts as a neurotransmitter, is mostly produced in neuronal cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra while epinephrine is produced in neurons in the human brain that express PMNT. Catecholamines typically have a half-life of a few minutes in the blood. They are typically degraded via catechol-O-methyltransferases (COMT) or by deamination via monoamine oxidases (MAO). Another important aspect of tyrosine metabolism includes the production of melanin. Melanin is produced through a mechanism known as melanogenesis, a process that involves the oxidation of tyrosine followed by the polymerization of these oxidation by-products. Melanin pigments are produced in a specialized group of cells known as melanocytes. There are three types of melanin: pheomelanin, eumelanin, and neuromelanin of which eumelanin is the most common. Melanogenesis, especially in the skin, is initiated through the exposure to UV light. Melanin is the primary pigment that determines skin color. Melanin is also found in hair and the pigmented tissue underlying the iris. The first step in the synthesis for both eumelanins and pheomelanins is the conversion of tyrosine to dopaquinone by the enzyme known as tyrosinase. The resulting dopaquinone can combine with cysteine to produce cysteinyldopa, which then polymerizes to form pheomelanin. Dopaquinone can also form lecuodopachrome, which then can be converted to dopachrome (a cyclization product) and this eventually becomes eumelanin. Tyrosine plays a critical role in the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones are produced and released by the thyroid gland and include triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These two hormones are responsible for regulating metabolism. Thyroxine was discovered and isolated by Edward Calvin Kendall in 1915. Thyroid hormones are produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland through the action of thyroperoxidase, which iodinates reactive tyrosine residues on thyroglobulin. Proteolysis of the thyroglobulin in cellular lysosomes releases the small molecule thyroid hormones. In mammals, tyrosine can be formed from dietary phenylalanine by the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, found in large amounts in the liver. Phenylalanine is considered an essential amino acid, while tyrosine (which can be endogenously synthesized) is not. In plants and most microbes, tyrosine is produced via prephenate, an intermediate that is produced as part of the shikimate pathway.


Pw000159 View Pathway

Galactose Metabolism

This pathway depicts the conversion of galactose into glucose, lactose, and other sugar intermediates that may be used for a range of metabolic process. Dietary sources of galactose are numerous, but some of the primary sources in the human diet can be found in milk and milk derivative products. This is because during digestion milk sugars and lactose are hydrolyzed into their molecular constituents (e.g. base monosaccharides). In milk, such monosaccharides include glucose and galactose. The metabolism of the sugar Galactose is occurs almost entirely in the liver, and its metabolism is the consequence of three steps or reactions. First, the phosphorylation of galactose is induced by a special enzyme with the predictable name, galactokinase, and produces galactose 1-phosphate. Second, this biproduct and a second molecule, UDP-glucose, undergo a reaction which leads to the formation of UDP-galactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Thus, this reaction produces 1 molecule of glucose 1-phosphate per molecule of galactose. This is mediated by the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). The resulting UDP-galactose undergoes epimerization to form UDP-glucose via the enzyme UDP-galactose-4 epimerase (GALE). The UDP-glucose can be used in glucuronidation reactions and other pentose interconversions. In a reaction shared with other pathways, glucose 1-phosphate can be converted into glucose 6-phosphate. There are other pathways associated with galactose metabolism. For instance, galactose can be converted into UDP-glucose by the sequential activities of GALK, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2), and GALE. Galactose can also be reduced to galactitol by NADPH-dependent aldose reductase. Also shown in this pathway is the conversion of glucose to galactose vis a vis a different process to the ones described earlier. This pathway, called hexoneogenesis, allows mammary glands to produce galactose. It should be noted however, that despite the existence of this pathway of galactose production, the vast majority of galactose in breast milk is actually the result of direct uptake up from the blood, whereas only a small fraction, ~35%, is the result of this de novo process hexoneogenesis. Also depicted in this pathway are the conversions of other dietary di and tri-saccharides (raffinose, manninotriose, melibiose, stachyose) into galactose, glucose and fructose as well as and dietary sugar alcohols (melibitol, galactinol, galactosylglycerol) into sorbitol, myo-inositol, and glycerol.
Showing 111 - 120 of 57733 pathways