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Showing 51 - 60 of 49833 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0124236

Pw125692 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (10Z,12E)-Pentadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine

(10Z,12E)-Pentadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (10Z,12E)-pentadeca-10,12-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (10Z,12E)-pentadeca-10,12-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (10Z,12E)-pentadeca-10,12-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (10Z,12E)-pentadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (10Z,12E)-pentadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (10Z,12E)-pentadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (10Z,12E)-pentadeca-10,12-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (10Z,12E)-Pentadeca-10,12-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (10Z,12E)-pentadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124167

Pw125623 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (10Z,12E)-Tetradecadienoylcarnitine

(10Z,12E)-Tetradecadienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (10Z,12E)-tetradecadienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (10Z,12E)-tetradecadienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (10Z,12E)-tetradecadienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (10Z,12E)-tetradecadienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (10Z,12E)-tetradecadienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (10Z,12E)-tetradecadienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (10Z,12E)-tetradecadienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (10Z,12E)-Tetradecadienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (10Z,12E)-tetradecadienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0123615

Pw125071 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine

(10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (10Z,12Z)-octadeca-10,12-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124359

Pw125815 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoylcarnitine

(10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (10Z,13Z)-Nonadeca-10,13-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124104

Pw125560 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (11E)-Tridec-11-enoylcarnitine

(11E)-Tridec-11-enoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (11E)-tridec-11-enoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (11E)-tridec-11-enoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (11E)-tridec-11-enoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (11E)-tridec-11-enoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (11E)-tridec-11-enoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (11E)-tridec-11-enoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (11E)-tridec-11-enoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (11E)-Tridec-11-enoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (11E)-tridec-11-enoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124338

Pw125794 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (11E,13E)-9-Hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine

(11E,13E)-9-Hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (11E,13E)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (11E,13E)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (11E,13E)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (11E,13E)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (11E,13E)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (11E,13E)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (11E,13E)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (11E,13E)-9-Hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (11E,13E)-9-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124336

Pw125792 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (11E,13Z)-10-Hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine

(11E,13Z)-10-Hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (11E,13Z)-10-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (11E,13Z)-10-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (11E,13Z)-10-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (11E,13Z)-10-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (11E,13Z)-10-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (11E,13Z)-10-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (11E,13Z)-10-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (11E,13Z)-10-Hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (11E,13Z)-10-hydroxyoctadeca-11,13-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124394

Pw125850 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine

(11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (11Z)-docos-11-enoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (11Z)-docos-11-enoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (11Z)-docos-11-enoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (11Z)-docos-11-enoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (11Z)-docos-11-enoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (11Z)-docos-11-enoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124261

Pw125717 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (11Z)-Hexadecenoylcarnitine

(11Z)-Hexadecenoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (11Z)-hexadecenoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (11Z)-hexadecenoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (11Z)-hexadecenoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (11Z)-hexadecenoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (11Z)-hexadecenoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (11Z)-hexadecenoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (11Z)-hexadecenoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (11Z)-Hexadecenoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (11Z)-hexadecenoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.

SMP0124369

Pw125825 View Pathway
Metabolic

Acylcarnitine (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine

(11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups, organic acids and fatty acids, from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. As part of this process, (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoic acid is first transported into the cell via the long-chain fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1). Once inside the cell it undergoes a reaction to form an acyl-CoA derivative called (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoyl-CoA. This reaction is facilitated by the long-chain fatty-acid CoA ligase 1 protein, which adds a CoA moiety to appropriate acyl groups. Many acyl-CoA groups will then further react with other zwitterionic compounds such as carnitine (to form acylcarnitines) and amino acids (to form acyl amides). The carnitine needed to form acylcarnitines inside the cell is transported into the cell by the organic cation/carnitine transporter 2. In forming an acylcarnitine derivative, (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoyl-CoA reacts with L-carnitine to form (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine. This reaction is catalyzed by carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase. This enzyme resides in the mitochondrial outer membrane. While this reaction takes place, the (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine is moved into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Following the reaction, the newly synthesized acylcarnitine is transported into the mitochondrial matrix by a mitochondrial carnitine/acylcarnitine carrier protein found in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Once in the matrix, (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine can react with the carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 2 enzyme found in the mitochondrial inner membrane to once again form (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoyl-CoA and L-carnitine. (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoyl-CoA then enters into the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to form aceytl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can go on to enter the TCA cycle, or it can react with L-carnitine to form L-acetylcarnitine in a reaction catalyzed by Carnitine O-acetyltransferase. This reaction can occur in both directions, and L-acetylcarnitine and CoA can react to form acetyl-CoA and L-carnitine in certain circumstances. Finally, acetyl-CoA in the cytosol can be catalyzed by acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 to form malonyl-CoA, which inhibits the action of carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase 1, thereby preventing (11Z,14Z)-3-Icosa-11,14-dienoylcarnitine from forming and thereby preventing it from being transported into the mitochondria.
Showing 51 - 60 of 49833 pathways