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Showing 91 - 100 of 605359 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Name and Description Pathway Class Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000158 View Pathway

Porphyrin Metabolism

This pathway depicts the synthesis and breakdown of porphyrin. The porphyrin ring is the framework for the heme molecule, the pigment in hemoglobin and red blood cells. The first reaction in porphyrin ring biosynthesis takes place in the mitochondria and involves the condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA by delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALAS). Delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is also called 5-aminolevulinic acid. Following its synthesis, ALA is transported into the cytosol, where ALA dehydratase (also called porphobilinogen synthase) dimerizes 2 molecules of ALA to produce porphobilinogen. The next step in the pathway involves the condensation of 4 molecules of porphobilinogen to produce hydroxymethylbilane (also known as HMB). The enzyme that catalyzes this condensation is known as porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG deaminase). This enzyme is also called hydroxymethylbilane synthase or uroporphyrinogen I synthase. Hydroxymethylbilane (HMB) has two main fates. Most frequently it is enzymatically converted into uroporphyrinogen III, the next intermediate on the path to heme. This step is mediated by two enzymes: uroporphyrinogen synthase and uroporphyrinogen III cosynthase. Hydroxymethylbilane can also be non-enzymatically cyclized to form uroporphyrinogen I. In the cytosol, the uroporphyrinogens (uroporphyrinogen III or uroporphyrinogen I) are decarboxylated by the enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. These new products have methyl groups in place of the original acetate groups and are known as coproporphyrinogens. Coproporphyrinogen III is the most important intermediate in heme synthesis. Coproporphyrinogen III is transported back from the cytosol into the interior of the mitochondria, where two propionate residues are decarboxylated (via coproporphyrinogen-III oxidase), which results in vinyl substituents on the 2 pyrrole rings. The resulting product is called protoporphyrinogen IX. The protoporphyrinogen IX is then converted into protoporphyrin IX by another enzyme called protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase. The final reaction in heme synthesis also takes place within the mitochondria and involves the insertion of the iron atom into the ring system generating the molecule known heme b. The enzyme catalyzing this reaction is known as ferrochelatase. The largest repository of heme in the body is in red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs have a life span of about 120 days. When the RBCs have reached the end of their useful lifespan, the cells are engulfed by macrophages and their constituents recycled or disposed of. Heme is broken down when the heme ring is opened by the enzyme known as heme oxygenase, which is found in the endoplasmic reticulum of the macrophages. The oxidation process produces the linear tetrapyrrole biliverdin, ferric iron (Fe3+), and carbon monoxide (CO). The carbon monoxide (which is toxic) is eventually discharged through the lungs. In the next reaction, a second methylene group (located between rings III and IV of the porphyrin ring) is reduced by the enzyme known as biliverdin reductase, producing bilirubin. Bilirubin is significantly less extensively conjugated than biliverdin. This reduction causes a change in the colour of the molecule from blue-green (biliverdin) to yellow-red (bilirubin). In hepatocytes, bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyltransferase (bilirubin-UGT) adds two additional glucuronic acid molecules to bilirubin to produce the more water-soluble version of the molecule known as bilirubin diglucuronide. In most individuals, intestinal bilirubin is acted on by the gut bacteria to produce the final porphyrin products, urobilinogens and stercobilins. These are excreted in the feces. The stercobilins oxidize to form brownish pigments which lead to the characteristic brown colour found in normal feces. Some of the urobilinogen produced by the gut bacteria is reabsorbed and re-enters the circulation. These urobilinogens are converted into urobilins that are then excreted in the urine which cause the yellowish colour in urine.


Pw000165 View Pathway

Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain

The electron transport chain in mitochondria leads to the transport of hydrogen ions across the inner membrane of the mitochndria, and this proton gradient is eventually used in the production of ATP. Electrons travel down a chain of electron carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane, ending with oxygen. The outer membrane of the mitochondrion is permeable to ions and other small molecules and nothing in this pathway requires a specific transporter to enter into the intermembrane space. However, the inner membrane is only permeable to water, oxygen and carbon dioxide, and all other molecules, including protons, require transport proteins. Phosphate is able to enter the mitochondrial matrix via the glucose-6-phosphate translocase, and ADP is able to enter the matrix as ATP leaves it via the ADP/ATP translocase 1 protein. Electrons donated by NADH can enter the electron transport chain as NADH dehydrogenase, known as complex I, facilitates their transfer to ubiquinone, also known as coenzyme Q10. As this occurs, the coenzyme Q10 becomes reduced to form ubiquinol, and protons are pumped from the intermembrane space to the matrix. Lower energy electrons can also be donated to complex II, which includes succinate dehydrogenase and contains FAD. These electrons move from succinic acid to the FAD in the enzyme complex, and then to coenzyme Q10, which is reduced to ubiquinol. Throughout this, succinic acid from the citric acid cycle is converted to fumaric acid, which then returns to the citric acid cycle. This step, unlike the others in the electron transport chain, does not result in any protons being pumped from the matrix to the intermembrane space. Regardless of which complex moved the electrons to coenzyme Q10, the cytochrome b-c1 complex, also known as complex III, catalyzes the movement of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, oxidizing ubiquinol to ubiquinone and reducing cytochrome c. This process also leads to the pumping of hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space. Finally, the transfer of electrons from the reduced cytochrome c is catalyzed by cytochrome c oxidase, also known as complex IV of the electron transport chain. This reaction oxidizes cytochrome c for further electron transport, and transfers the electrons to oxygen, forming molecules of water. This reaction also allows protons to be pumped across the membrane. The proton gradient that is built up through the electron transport chain allows protons to flow through the ATP synthase proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane, providing the energy required to synthesize ATP from ADP.


Pw000052 View Pathway

Purine Metabolism

Purine is a water soluble, organic compound. Purines, including purines that have been substituted, are the most widely distributed kind of nitrogen-containing heterocycle in nature. The two most important purines are adenine and guanine. Other notable examples are hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, caffeine, uric acid and isoguanine. This pathway depicts a number of processes including purine nucleotide biosynthesis, purine degradation and purine salvage. The main organ where purine nucleotides are created is the liver. This process starts as 5-phospho-α-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, or PRPP, and creates inosine 5’-monophosphate, or IMP. Following a series of reactions, PRPP uses compounds such as tetrahydrofolate derivatives, glycine and ATP, and IMP is produced as a result. Glutamine PRPP amidotransferase catalyzes PRPP into 5-phosphoribosylamine, or PRA. 5-phosphoribosylamine is converted to glycinamide ribotide (GAR) then to formyglycinamide ribotide (FGAR). This set of reactions is catalyzed by a trifunctional enzyme containing GAR synthetase, GAR transformylase and AIR synthetase. FGAR is converted to formylglycinamidine-ribonucleotide (FGAM) by formylglycinamide synthase. FGAM is then converted by aminoimidzaole ribotide synthase to 5-aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR) then carboxylated by aminoimidazole ribotide carboxylase to carboxyaminoimidazole ribotide (CAIR). CAIR is then converted tosuccinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (SAICAR) by succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide synthase followed by conversion to AICAR (via adenylsuccinate lyase) then to FAICAR (via aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide transformylase). FAICAR is finally converted to inosine monophosphate (IMP) by IMP cyclohydrolase. Because of the complexity of this synthetic process, the purine ring is actually composed of atoms derived from many different molecules. The N1 atom arises from the amine group of Asp, the C2 and C8 atoms originate from formate, the N3 and N9 atoms come from the amide group of Gln, the C4, C5 and N7 atoms come from Gly and the C6 atom comes from CO2. IMP creates a fork in the road for the creation of purine, as it can either become GMP or AMP. AMP is generated from IMP via adenylsuccinate synthetase (which adds aspartate) and adenylsuccinate lyase. GMP is generated via the action of IMP dehydrogenase and GMP synthase. Purine nucleotides being catabolized creates uric acid. Beginning from AMP, the enzymes AMP deaminase and nucleotidase work in concert to generate inosine. Alternately, AMP may be dephosphorylate by nucleotidase and then adenosine deaminase (ADA) converts the free adenosine to inosine. The enzyme purine nucleotide phosphorylase (PNP) converts inosine to hypoxanthine, while xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine to xanthine and finally to uric acid. GMP and XMP can also be converted to uric acid via the action of nucleotidase, PNP, guanine deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Nucleotide creation stemming from the purine bases and purine nucleosides happens in steps that are called the “salvage pathways”. The free purine bases phosphoribosylated and reconverted to their respective nucleotides.


Pw000141 View Pathway


Steroidogenesis is a process that through the transformations of other steroids, produces a desired steroid. Some of these desired steroids include cortisol, corticoids, testosterone, estrogens, aldosterone and progesterone. To begin the synthesis of steroid hormones, cholesterol synthesizes a hormone called pregnenolone. This is done by cholesterol from the cytosol or lysosome being brought to the mitochondria and becoming fixed in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Once there, the cholesterol becomes pregnenolone through three reactions. The enzyme responsible for catalyzing all three reactions is CYP11A, a side chain cleavage enzyme. After being created, the pregnenolone enters the cytosol, where the cholesterol originated. Once in the cytosol, pregenolone synthesizes progesterone, using two reactions. These two reactions are both catalyzed by an enzyme called 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase. The enzyme CYP21A2 then hydroxylates progesterone, which converts it to deoxycorticosterone. Deoxycorticosterone then undergoes three reactions catalyzed by CYP11B2 to become aldosterone. 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone is created from pregnenolone by using 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase. CYP21A2 then hydroxylates 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone which results in the production of 11-deoxycortisol. CYP11B1 quickly converts 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol. Cortisol is an active steroid hormone, and its conversion to the inactive cortisone has been known to occur in various tissues, with increased conversion occurring in the liver. Pregnenolone is an important hormone as it is responsible for the beginning of the synthesis of many hormones not pictured in this pathway such as testosterone and estrogen. Cortisol receptors are found in almost every bodily cell, so this hormone affects a wide range of body functions. Some of these functions include metabolism regulation, inflammation reduction, regulating blood sugar levels and blood pressure, and helps with the formation of memories.


Pw122397 View Pathway

Eumelanin Biosynthesis

Melanin is the term used for multiple pigments found in many organisms, and specifically our skin, hair and iris tissues. There are three types of melanin, eumelanin, pheomelanin and neuromelanin. Eumelanin is the most common, and can be brown or black. Melanin is produced by melanocytes, and is a polymer made of smaller components, so there are many types with different polymerization patterns and proportions of components. To begin, this pathway takes L-dopachrome from the L-dopa and L-dopachrome biosynthesis pathways and, in the melanosome, it can either spontaneously form 5,6-dihydroxyindole, or can form 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid using L-dopachrome tautomerase as the catalyst. Both 5,6-dihydroxyindole and 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid use tyrosinase as a catalyst to form indole-5,6-quinone and indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylate respectively. Finally, some combination of 5,6-hydroxyindole, indole-5,6-quinone, 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid and indole-5,6-quinone-2-carboxylate combine to form melanochrome, an intermediate in the formation of eumelanin, and finally forms eumelanin, the final product of this pathway.


Pw000457 View Pathway

Nucleotide Excision Repair

In order to pass genetic information from one generation to the next, all organisms must accurately replicate their genomes during each cell division. This includes the nuclear genome and mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes. These are normally replicated with high fidelity that is achieved through the action of accurate DNA repair. Nucleotide Excision Repair is one os several mechanisms of DNA repair. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) operates on base damage caused by exogenous agents (such as mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals and photoproducts generated by sunlight exposure) that cause alterations in the chemistry and structure of the DNA duplex . Such damage is recognized by a protein called XPC, which is stably bound to another protein called HHRAD23B (R23). The binding of the XPC–HHRAD23 heterodimeric subcomplex is followed by the binding of several other proteins (XPA, RPA, TFIIH and XPG). Of these, XPA and RPA are believed to facilitate specific recognition of base damage. TFIIH is a subcomplex of the RNA polymerase II transcription initiation machinery which also operates during NER. It consists of six subunits and contains two DNA helicase activities (XPB and XPD) that unwind the DNA duplex in the immediate vicinity of the base damage. This local denaturation generates a bubble in the DNA, the ends of which comprise junctions between duplex and single-stranded DNA. The subsequent binding of the ERCC1–XPF heterodimeric subcomplex generates a completely assembled NER multiprotein complex. XPG is a duplex/single-stranded DNA endonuclease that cuts the damaged strand at such junctions 3’ to the site of base damage. Conversely, the ERCC1–XPF heterodimeric protein is a duplex/single-stranded DNA endonuclease that cuts the damaged strand at such junctions 5’ to the site of base damage. This bimodal incision generates an oligonucleotide fragment 27–30 nucleotides in length which includes the damaged base. This fragment is excised from the genome, concomitant with restoring the potential 27–30 nucleotide gap by repair synthesis. Repair synthesis requires DNA polymerases or , as well as the accessory replication proteins PCNA, RPA and RFC. The covalent integrity of the damaged strand is then restored by DNA ligase. Collectively, these biochemical events return the damaged DNA to its native chemistry and configuration. ERCC1, excision repair cross-complementing 1; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen; POL, polymerase; RFC, replication factor C; RPA, replication protein A; TFIIH, transcription factor IIH; XP, xeroderma pigmentosum.


Pw122278 View Pathway

Kidney Function - Collecting Duct

The collecting duct of the nephron is the last segment of the functioning nephron and is connected to minor calyces and the ensuing renal pelvis of the kidney where urine continues before it is stored in the bladder. The collecting duct is mainly responsible for the excretion and reabsorption of water and ions. It is composed of two important cell types: intercalated cells that are responsible for maintaining acid-base homeostasis, and principal cells that help maintain the body's water and salt balance. When renin is released from the kidneys, it causes the activation of angiotensin I in the blood circulation which is cleaved to become angiotensin II. Angiotensin II stimulates the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex and release of vasopressin from the posterior pituitary gland. When in the circulation, vasopressin eventually binds to receptors on epithelial cells in the collecting ducts. This causes vesicles that contain aquaporins to fuse with the plasma membrane. Aquaporins are proteins that act as water channels once they have bound to the plasma membrane. As a result, the permeability of the collecting duct changes to allow for water reabsorption back into the blood circulation. In addition, sodium and potassium are also reabsorbed back into the systemic circulation at the collecting duct via potassium and sodium channels. However, aldosterone is a major regulator of the reabsorption of these ions as well, as it changes the permeability of the collective duct to these ions. As a result, a high concentration of sodium and potassium in the blood vessels occurs. Some urea and other ions may be reabsorbed as well. The reabsorption of ions and water increases blood fluid volume and blood pressure.


Pw031778 View Pathway

Estrone Metabolism

Estrone (also known as oestrone) is a weak endogenous estrogen, a steroid and minor female sex hormone. Estrone is synthesized from cholesterol and secreted from gonads. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the place that estrone undergoes primary metabolism. Estrone sulfate and estrone glucuronide are the conjugated product of estrone; and CYP450 can hydroxylate estrone into catechol estrogens. The enzyme catechol O-methyltransferase catalyzes the conversion of 2-hydroxyestrone into 2-methoxyestrone which is used to synthesize 2-methoxyestrone 3-glucuronide via the membrane-associated massive multimer UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1. Estrone can also be reversibly converted into estradiol by estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1. This same enzyme can reversibly convert 16a-hydroxyestrone (synthesized from estrone via cytochrome P450 3A5) into estriol. Estriol is alternatively synthesized from estradiol via cytochrome P450 3A5.


Pw122285 View Pathway

Pancreas Function - Beta Cell

Beta cells are found in pancreatic islet cells and their main function is to release insulin. Insulin counteracts glucagon and functions to maintain glucose homeostasis when glucose levels are high. Insulin is contained in granules in the cell as a reserve ready to be released, which is dependent on extracellular glucose levels, and intracellular calcium levels and/or various proteins that activate the vesicle-associated membrane protein on the insulin granules' membranes. In the process of insulin secretion, glucose must first undergo glycolysis to increase ATP in the cell. The inside of the beta cell then becomes electrically positive due to the closure of potassium channels that were inhibited by ATP. From this closure, the potassium is no longer being shuttled out of the cell, thus depolarizing the cell due to the extra intracellular potassium. The resulting action potential from the increased membrane potential causes the voltage gate calcium channels to open, creating an influx of calcium into the cell. This triggers the vesicle-associated membrane protein on the outside of the insulin granule to tether, dock, and fuse with the beta cell membrane. Insulin is then exocytosed from the cell. However, the vesicle-associated membrane protein can be activated by other means in addition to calcium. Acetylcholine can bind to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors on the cell membrane and trigger a G protein cascade. This eventually leads to the activation of inositol trisphosphate to cause calcium release from the rough endoplasmic reticulum so that it can activate the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase to trigger the vesicle-associated membrane protein. The G protein cascade can also lead to the activation of diacylglycerol and subsequently protein kinase C to lead to the same outcome. Glucagon-like peptide can also trigger a similar G protein cascade when it binds to glucagon-like peptide receptors on the cell membrane of the beta cell. This process involves cAMP and a few other proteins in order to lead to the same eventual outcome of triggering the vesicle-associated membrane protein and the exocytosis of insulin from the beta cell.


Pw016768 View Pathway

De Novo Triacylglycerol Biosynthesis

A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. De novo biosynthesis of triglycerides is also known as the phosphatidic acid pathway, and it is mainly associated with the liver and adipose tissue. All membrane-localized enzymes are coloured dark green in the image. First, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (or glycerone phosphate) from glycolysis is used by the cytosolic enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(+)] to synthesize sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. Second, the mitochondrial outer membrane enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase esterifies an acyl-group to the sn-1 position of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to form 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid or LPA). The next three steps are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The enzyme 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase converts LPA into phosphatidic acid (1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate) by esterifying an acyl-group to the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. Next, magnesium-dependent phosphatidate phosphatase catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid into diacylglycerol. Last, the enzyme diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase synthesizes triacylglycerol from diacylglycerol and a fatty acyl-CoA.
Showing 91 - 100 of 65006 pathways