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Showing 11 - 20 of 49832 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000042 View Pathway

Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism

In man, phenylalanine is an essential amino acid which must be supplied in the dietary proteins. Once in the body, phenylalanine may follow any of three paths. It may be (1) incorporated into cellular proteins, (2) converted to phenylpyruvic acid, or (3) converted to tyrosine. Tyrosine is found in many high protein food products such as soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds. Tyrosine can be converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). Depicted in this pathway is the conversion of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate (via amino acid oxidase or tyrosine amino transferase acting on phenylalanine), the incorporation of phenylalanine and/or tyrosine into polypeptides (via tyrosyl tRNA synthetase and phenylalyl tRNA synthetase) and the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine via phenylalanine hydroxylase. This reaction functions both as the first step in tyrosine/phenylalanine catabolism by which the body disposes of excess phenylalanine, and as a source of the amino acid tyrosine. The decomposition of L-tyrosine begins with an α-ketoglutarate dependent transamination through the tyrosine transaminase to para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The next oxidation step catalyzed by p-hydroxylphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase creates homogentisate. In order to split the aromatic ring of homogentisate, a further dioxygenase, homogentistate-oxygenase, is required to create maleylacetoacetate. Fumarylacetate is created by the action maleylacetoacetate-cis-trans-isomerase through rotation of the carboxyl group created from the hydroxyl group via oxidation. This cis-trans-isomerase contains glutathione as a coenzyme. Fumarylacetoacetate is finally split via fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase into fumarate (also a metabolite of the citric acid cycle) and acetoacetate (3-ketobutyroate).


Pw000009 View Pathway

Ammonia Recycling

Ammonia can be rerouted from the urine and recycled into the body for use in nitrogen metabolism. Glutamate and glutamine play an important role in this process. There are many other processes that act to recycle ammonia. asparaginase recycles ammonia from asparagine. Glycine cleavage system generates ammonia from glycine. Histidine ammonia lyase forms ammonia from histidine. Serine dehydratase also produces ammonia by cleaving serine.


Pw000004 View Pathway

Glutathione Metabolism

Glutathione (GSH) is an low-molecular-weight thiol and antioxidant in various species such as plants, mammals and microbes. Glutathione plays important roles in nutrient metabolism, gene expression, etc. and sufficient protein nutrition is important for maintenance of GSH homeostasis. Glutathione is synthesized from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine sequentially by gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase and GSH synthetase. L-Glutamic acid and cysteine are synthesized to form gamma-glutamylcysteine by glutamate-cysteine ligase that is powered by ATP. Gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine can be synthesized to form glutathione by enzyme glutathione synthetase that is powered by ATP, too. Glutathione exists oxidized (GSSG) states and in reduced (GSH) state. Oxidation of glutathione happens due to relatively high concentration of glutathione within cells.


Pw122325 View Pathway

Bloch Pathway (Cholesterol Biosynthesis)

The Bloch pathway, named after Konrad Bloch, is the pathway following the mevalonate pathway occurring within the cell to complete cholesterol biosynthesis. Cholesterol is a necessary metabolite that helps create many essential hormones within the human body. This pathway, combined with the mevalonate pathway is one of two ways to biosynthesize cholesterol; the Kandutsch-Russell pathway is an alternative pathway that uses different compounds than the Bloch Pathway beginning after lanosterol. The first three reactions occur in the endoplasmic reticulum. Lanosterol, a compound created through the mevalonate pathway, binds with the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to become 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Moving to the next reaction, 4,4-dimethyl-14a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol utilizes the enzyme lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase to create 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol. Lanosterol 14-alpha demethylase is used one last time in this pathway, converting 4,4-dimethyl-14α-formyl-5α-cholesta-8,24-dien-3β-ol into 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol. Entering the inner nuclear membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,14,24-trien-3b-ol is catalyzed by a lamin B receptor to create 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol. Entering the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, 4,4-dimethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-b-ol, with the help of methyl monooxygenase 1 is converted to 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. The enzyme methyl monooxygenase 1 uses 4a-hydroxymethyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. This reaction is repeated once more, using 4a-formyl-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol and methyl monooxygenase 1 to create 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Briefly entering the endoplasmic reticulum, 4a-carboxy-4b-methyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol then uses sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehyrogenase to catalyze into 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol. Back in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, where the pathway will continue on for the remaining reactions, 3-keto-4-methylzymosterol combines with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create 4a-methylzymosterol. 4a-Methylzymosterol joins the enzyme methylsterol monooxgenase 1 to result in 4a-hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Hydroxymethyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol uses methylsterol monooxygenase 1 to convert to 4a-formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. 4a-Formyl-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol proceeds to use the same enzyme used in the previous reaction: methylsterol monooxygenase 1, to catalyze into 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol. Sterol-4-alpha-carboxylate-3-dehydrogenase is used alongside 4a-carboxy-5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3b-ol to produce 5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one (also known as zymosterone). Zymosterone (5a-cholesta-8,24-dien-3-one) teams up with 3-keto-steroid reductase to create zymosterol. Zymosterol proceeds to use the enzyme 3-beta-hydroxysteroid-delta(8),delta(7)-isomerase to catalyze into 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol. The compound 5a-cholesta-7,24-dien-3b-ol then joins lathosterol oxidase to convert to 7-dehydrodesmosterol. 7-Dehydrodesmosterol and the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase come together to create desmosterol. This brings the pathway to the final reaction, where desmosterol combines with delta(24)-sterol reductase to finally convert to cholesterol.


Pw000047 View Pathway

Vitamin K Metabolism

Vitamin K describes a group of lipophilic, hydrophobic vitamins that exist naturally in two forms (and synthetically in three others): vitamin K1, which is found in plants, and vitamin K2, which is synthesized by bacteria. Vitamin K is an important dietary component because it is necessary as a cofacter in the activation of vitamin K dependent proteins. Metabolism of vitamin K occurs mainly in the liver. In the first step, vitamin K is reduced to its quinone form by a quinone reductase such as NAD(P)H dehydrogenase. Reduced vitamin K is the form required to convert vitamin K dependent protein precursors to their active states. It acts as a cofactor to the integral membrane enzyme vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylase (along with water and carbon dioxide as co-substrates), which carboxylates glutamyl residues to gamma-carboxy-glutamic acid residues on certain proteins, activating them. Each converted glutamyl residue produces a molecule of vitamin K epoxide, and certain proteins may have more than one residue requiring carboxylation. To complete the cycle, the vitamin K epoxide is returned to vitamin K via the vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme, also an integral membrane protein. The vitamin K dependent proteins include a number of important coagulation factors, such as prothrombin. Thus, warfarin and other coumarin drugs act as anticoagulants by blocking vitamin K epoxide reductase.


Pw000167 View Pathway

Fatty Acid Biosynthesis

The biosynthesis of fatty acids primarily occurs in liver and lactating mammary glands. The entire synthesis process which produces palmitic acid occurs on a multifunctional dimeric protein Fatty Acid Synthase (FA) in the cytosol. The production of palmitic acid can be summarized as the successive addition of two carbons to an initial acetyl moiety primer. After 7 cycles palimitic acid is released. The synthesis starts with the sequential transfer of a primer substrate, acetyl-CoA, to the nucleophilic serine residue of the acyltransferase domain of FA. The acetyl moiety is then transferred to the Acyl Carrier Protein (ACP) domain of FA, then finally to the active site of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain. A chain extender substrate, molonyl-CoA, is transferred to the nucleophilic serine residue of the acyltransferase domain and subsequently to the ACP domain. The acetyl moiety is extend by a condensation reaction, catalysed by the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain, that produces a new Carbon-Carbon bound, this reaction is coupled to a decarboxylation resulting in the production of carbon dioxide. Subsequently beta-ketoacyl condensation product is reduced to a saturated acyl moiety through the step wise action on the beta-ketoacyl reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl dehydrase and enoyl reductase domains respectively. This saturated acyl moiety is then transfer back to the active site of the beta-ketoacyl synthase domain, another molonyl-CoA is loaded and the process repeats. The addition of molonyl moieties occurs 7 times after which the final product is released by that action of thioesterase domain. The final product is 16 carbon long palmitic acid.


Pw000028 View Pathway

Ketone Body Metabolism

Ketone bodies are consisted of acetone, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. In liver cells' mitochondria, acetyl-CoA can synthesize acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate; and spontaneous decarboxylation of acetoacetate will form acetone. Metabolism of ketone body (also known as ketogenesis) contains several reactions. Acetoacetic acid (acetoacetate) will be catalyzed to form acetoacetyl-CoA irreversibly by 3-oxoacid CoA-transferase 1 that also coupled with interconversion of succinyl-CoA and succinic acid. Acetoacetic acid can also be catalyzed by mitochondrial D-beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase to form (R)-3-Hydroxybutyric acid with NADH. Ketogenesis occurs mostly during fasting and starvation. Stored fatty acids will be broken down and mobilized to produce large amount of acetyl-CoA for ketogenesis in liver, which can reduce the demand of glucose for other tissues. Acetone cannot be converted back to acetyl-CoA; therefore, they are either breathed out through the lungs or excreted in urine.


Pw000011 View Pathway

beta-Alanine Metabolism

Beta-alanine, 3-aminopropanoic acid, is a non-essential amino acid. Beta-Alanine is formed by the proteolytic degradation of beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine, balenine, and pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). These dipeptides are consumed from protein-rich foods such as chicken, beef, pork, and fish. Beta-Alanine can also be formed in the liver from the breakdown of pyrimidine nucleotides into uracil and dihydrouracil and then metabolized into beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyrate. Beta-Alanine can also be formed via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase on beta-aminoproionaldehyde which is generated from various aliphatic polyamines. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized to aspartic acid through the action of glutamate decarboxylase. It addition, it can be converted to malonate semialdehyde and thereby participate in propanoate metabolism. Beta-Alanine is not a proteogenic amino acid. This amino acid is a common athletic supplementation due to its belief to improve performance by increased muscle carnosine levels.


Pw000155 View Pathway

Oxidation of Branched-Chain Fatty Acids

In the majority of organisms, fatty acid degradation occurs mostly through the beta-oxidation cycle. In plants, this cycle only happens in the peroxisome, while in mammals this cycle happens in both the peroxisomes and mitochondria. Unfortunately, traditional fatty acid oxidation does not work for branched-chain fatty acids, or fatty acids that do not have an even number of carbons, like the fatty acid phytanic acid, found in animal milk. This acid can not be oxidized through beta-oxidation, as problems arise when water is added at the branched beta-carbon. To be able to oxidize this fatty acid, the carbon is oxidized by oxygen, which removes the initial carboxyl group, which shortens the chain. Now lacking a methyl group, this chain can be beta-oxidized. Now moving to the mitochondria, there are four reactions that occur, and are repeated for each molecule of the fatty acid. Each time the cycle of these reactions is completed, the chain is relieved of two carbons, which are oxidized and are taken away by NADH and FADH2, energy carriers that collect the carbons energy. After beta-oxidation in the cycle of reactions, an acetyl-CoA unit is released and is recycled into the cycle of reactions in the mitochondria, until the chain is fully broken down into acetyl-CoA, and can enter the TCA cycle. Once in the TCA cycle, it is converted to NADH and FADH2, which in turn help move along mitochondrial ATP production. Acetyl-CoA also helps produce ketone bodies that are further converted to energy in the heart and the brain.


Pw000054 View Pathway

Pyruvate Metabolism

Pyruvate is an intermediate compound in the metabolism of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. It can be formed from glucose via glycolysis or the transamination of alanine. It can be converted into Acetyl-CoA to be used as the primary energy source for the TCA cycle, or converted into oxaloacetate to replenish TCA cycle intermediates. Pyruvate can also be used to synthesize carbohydrates, fatty acids, ketone bodies, alanine, and steroids. In conditions of inssuficient oxygen or in cells with few mitochondria, pyruvate is reduced to lactate in order to re-oxidize NADH back into NAD+ Pyruvate participates in several key reactions and pathways. In glycolysis, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is converted to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase in an highly exergonic and irreversible reaction. In gluconeogenesis, pyruvate carboxylase and PEP carboxykinase are needed to catalyze the conversion of pyruvate to PEP. In fatty acid synthesis, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex decarboxylates pyruvate to produce acetyl-CoA. In gluconeogenesis, the carboxylation by pyruvate carboxylase produces oxaloacetate. The fate of pyruvate depends on the cell energy charge. In cells or tissues with a high energy charge pyruvate is directed toward gluconeogenesis, but when the energy charge is low pyruvate is preferentially oxidized to CO2 and H2O in the TCA cycle, with generation of 15 equivalents of ATP per pyruvate. The enzymatic activities of the TCA cycle are located in the mitochondrion. When transported into the mitochondrion, pyruvate encounters two principal metabolizing enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase (a gluconeogenic enzyme) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). With a high cell-energy charge, acetyl-CoA, is able allosterically to activate pyruvate carboxylase, directing pyruvate toward gluconeogenesis. When the energy charge is low CoA is not acylated, pyruvate carboxylase is inactive, and pyruvate is preferentially metabolized via the PDH complex and the enzymes of the TCA cycle to CO2 and H2O.
Showing 11 - 20 of 49832 pathways