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Showing 21 - 30 of 605359 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Name and Description Pathway Class Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000148 View Pathway

Sphingolipid Metabolism

The sphingolipid metabolism pathway depicted here describes the synthesis of sphingolipids which include sphingomyelins, ceramides, phosphoceramides, glucosylceramides, galactosylceramides, sulfagalactosylceramides, lactosylceramides, and various other ceramides. The core of a sphingolipid is the long-chain amino alcohol called sphingosine. Amino acylation, with a long-chain fatty acid, at the 2-carbon position of sphingosine yields a ceramide. Sphingolipids are a component of all membranes but are particularly abundant in the myelin sheath. De novo sphingolipid synthesis begins at the cytoplasmic side of the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) with the formation of 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine (also known as 3-ketosphinganine) by the enzyme known as serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The preferred substrates for this reaction are palmitoyl-CoA and serine. Next, 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine is reduced to form dihydrosphingosine (also known as sphinganine) via the enzyme 3-ketodihydrosphingosine reductase (KDHR), which is also known as 3-ketosphinganine reductase. Dihydrosphingosine (sphinganine) is acylated by the action of several dihydroceramide synthases (CerS) to form dihydroceramide. Dihydroceramide is then desaturated in the original palmitic portion of the lipid via dihydroceramide desaturase 1 (DES1) to form ceramide. Following the conversion to ceramide, sphingosine is released via the action of ceramidase. Sphingosine can be re-converted into a ceramide by condensation with an acyl-CoA catalyzed by the various CerS enzymes. Ceramide may be phosphorylated by ceramide kinase to form ceramide-1-phosphate. Alternatively, it may be glycosylated by glucosylceramide synthase (to form a glucosylceramide) or galactosylceramide synthase (to form a galactosylceramide). Additionally, it can be converted to sphingomyelin by the addition of a phosphorylcholine headgroup by sphingomyelin synthase (SMS). Sphingomyelins are the only sphingolipids that are phospholipids. Diacylglycerol is also generated via this process. Alternately, ceramide may be broken down by a ceramidase to form sphingosine. Sphingosine may be phosphorylated to form sphingosine-1-phosphate, which may, in turn, be dephosphorylated to regenerate sphingosine. Sphingolipid catabolism allows the reversion of these metabolites to ceramide. The complex glycosphingolipids are hydrolyzed to glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide. These lipids are then hydrolyzed by beta-glucosidases and beta-galactosidases to regenerate ceramide. Similarly, sphingomyelins may be broken down by sphingomyelinase to create ceramides and phosphocholine. The only route by which sphingolipids are converted into non-sphingolipids is through sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase. This forms ethanolamine phosphate and hexadecenal.


Pw000042 View Pathway

Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Metabolism

In man, phenylalanine is an essential amino acid which must be supplied in the dietary proteins. Once in the body, phenylalanine may follow any of three paths. It may be (1) incorporated into cellular proteins, (2) converted to phenylpyruvic acid, or (3) converted to tyrosine. Tyrosine is found in many high protein food products such as soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds. Tyrosine can be converted into L-DOPA, which is further converted into dopamine, norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and epinephrine (adrenaline). Depicted in this pathway is the conversion of phenylalanine to phenylpyruvate (via amino acid oxidase or tyrosine amino transferase acting on phenylalanine), the incorporation of phenylalanine and/or tyrosine into polypeptides (via tyrosyl tRNA synthetase and phenylalyl tRNA synthetase) and the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine via phenylalanine hydroxylase. This reaction functions both as the first step in tyrosine/phenylalanine catabolism by which the body disposes of excess phenylalanine, and as a source of the amino acid tyrosine. The decomposition of L-tyrosine begins with an α-ketoglutarate dependent transamination through the tyrosine transaminase to para-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. The next oxidation step catalyzed by p-hydroxylphenylpyruvate-dioxygenase creates homogentisate. In order to split the aromatic ring of homogentisate, a further dioxygenase, homogentistate-oxygenase, is required to create maleylacetoacetate. Fumarylacetate is created by the action maleylacetoacetate-cis-trans-isomerase through rotation of the carboxyl group created from the hydroxyl group via oxidation. This cis-trans-isomerase contains glutathione as a coenzyme. Fumarylacetoacetate is finally split via fumarylacetoacetate-hydrolase into fumarate (also a metabolite of the citric acid cycle) and acetoacetate (3-ketobutyroate).


Pw000011 View Pathway

beta-Alanine Metabolism

Beta-alanine, 3-aminopropanoic acid, is a non-essential amino acid. Beta-Alanine is formed by the proteolytic degradation of beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine, balenine, and pantothenic acid (vitamin B5). These dipeptides are consumed from protein-rich foods such as chicken, beef, pork, and fish. Beta-Alanine can also be formed in the liver from the breakdown of pyrimidine nucleotides into uracil and dihydrouracil and then metabolized into beta-alanine and beta-aminoisobutyrate. Beta-Alanine can also be formed via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase on beta-aminoproionaldehyde which is generated from various aliphatic polyamines. Under normal conditions, beta-alanine is metabolized to aspartic acid through the action of glutamate decarboxylase. It addition, it can be converted to malonate semialdehyde and thereby participate in propanoate metabolism. Beta-Alanine is not a proteogenic amino acid. This amino acid is a common athletic supplementation due to its belief to improve performance by increased muscle carnosine levels.


Pw000149 View Pathway

Propanoate Metabolism

This pathway depicts the metabolism of propionic acid. Propionic acid in mammals typically arises from the production of the acid by gut or skin microflora. Propionic acid producing bacteria (Propionibacterium sp.) are particularly common in sweat glands of mammals. After entering a cell, the propionic acid (propanoate) then enters the mitochondria where it is converted into propanol adenylate (or propionyl adenylate or propionyl-AMP) via propionyl-CoA synthetase and acetyl-CoA synthetase. The propionyl adenylate then is converted into propionyl coenzyme A (propionyl-CoA) via the same pair of enzymes. Propionyl-CoA is a relatively common compound that can also arise from the metabolic breakdown of fatty acids containing odd numbers of carbon atoms. Propionyl-CoA is also known to arise from the breakdown of some amino acids. Since propanoate has three carbons, propionyl-CoA cannot directly enter the beta-oxidation cycle (which requires two carbons from acetyl-CoA). Therefore, in most vertebrates, propionyl-CoA is carboxylated into D-methylmalonyl-CoA via propionyl-CoA carboxylase. The resulting compound is isomerized into L-methylmalonyl-CoA via methylmalonyl-CoA epimerase. A vitamin B12-dependent enzyme, called methylmalonyl CoA mutase catalyzes the rearrangement of L-methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA, which is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle. Also depicted in this pathway is another propionic acid homolog called hydroxypropanoic acid (hydroxypropionate). This compound is also produced by bacteria and imported into cells. Hydroxypropionate can be converted into 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA. This compound can be either enzymatically converted to acryloyl-CoA and then to propionyl-CoA or it can spontaneously convert to malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA can convert into acetyl-CoA (via acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the cytoplasm or malonyl carboxylase in the mitochondria) whereupon it may enter a variety of pathways. In a rare genetic metabolic disorder called propionic acidemia, propionate acts as a metabolic toxin in liver cells by accumulating in the liver mitochondria as propionyl-CoA and its derivative methylcitrate. Both propionyl-CoA and methylcitrate are known TCA inhibitors. Glial cells are particularly susceptible to propionyl-CoA accumulation. In fact, when propionate is infused into rat brains and take up by the glial cells, it leads to behavioural changes that resemble autism (PMID: 16950524).


Pw000017 View Pathway

Catecholamine Biosynthesis

The Catecholamine Biosynthesis pathway depicts the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catecholamines are chemical hormones released from the adrenal glands as a response to stress that activate the sympathetic nervous system. They are composed of a catechol group and are derived from amino acids. The commonly found catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine. They are synthesized in catecholaminergic neurons by four enzymes, beginning with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which generates L-DOPA from tyrosine. The L-DOPA is then converted to dopamine via aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which becomes norepinephrine via dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH); and finally is converted to epinephrine via phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT).


Pw000048 View Pathway

Phospholipid Biosynthesis

This pathway describes the synthesis of the common phospholipids, including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipins. Phospholipid synthesis is mediated by two possible mechanisms: (1) A CDP-activated polar head group for attaches to the phosphate of phosphatidic acid or (2) A CDP-activated 1,2-diacylglycerol and an inactivated polar head group. The ER membrane is the primary site of phospholipid synthesis using precursors imported into the ER from the cytosol. To initiate the process, phosphatidic acid is generated by the linkage of two fatty acids associated with coenzyme A (CoA) carriers to glycerol-3-phosphate. This new molecule is inserted into the membrane where a phosphatase converts it into diacylglycerol or alternatively it is formed into phosphatidylinositol before the conversion. If the conversion into diacylglycerol occurs, the molecule has three possible fates depending on the type of polar head group attached: phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, or phosphatidylserine. At their inception, a phospholipid is composed of a saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid on the C1 and C2 carbon of the glycerol backbone respectively. With the continuous remodelling of the phospholipid bilayer, this fatty acid distribution at these carbons changes. For example, acyl group remodelling changes the presence of acyl groups on the glycerol backbone (which were initially placed there by acyl transferases) and moves it further into the membrane as a consequence of the action of phospholipase A1 (PLA1) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Another modifying group that is usually added are alcohol-containing groups such as serine, ethanol amine, and choline which contain positively-charged nitrogen.


Pw000029 View Pathway

Lysine Degradation

The degradation of L-lysine happens in liver and it is consisted of seven reactions. L-Lysine is imported into liver through low affinity cationic amino acid transporter 2 (cationic amino acid transporter 2/SLC7A2). Afterwards, L-lysine is imported into mitochondria via mitochondrial ornithine transporter 2. L-Lysine can also be obtained from biotin metabolism. L-Lysine and oxoglutaric acid will be combined to form saccharopine by facilitation of mitochondrial alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, and then, mitochondrial alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase will further breaks saccharopine down to allysine and glutamic acid. Allysine will be degraded to form aminoadipic acid through alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Oxoadipic acid is formed from catalyzation of mitochondrial kynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase on aminoadipic acid. Oxoadipic acid will be further catalyzed to form glutaryl-CoA, and glutaryl-CoA converts to crotonoyl-CoA, and crotonoyl-CoA transformed to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. 3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA will form Acetyl-CoA as the final product through the intermediate compound: acetoacetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA will undergo citric acid cycle metabolism. Carnitine is another key byproduct of lysine metabolism (not shown in this pathway).


Pw000031 View Pathway

Nucleotide Sugars Metabolism

Nucleotide sugars are defined as any nucleotide in which the distal phosphoric residue of a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate is in glycosidic linkage with a monosaccharide or monosaccharide derivative. There are nine sugar nucleotides and they can be classified depending on the type of the nucleoside forming them: UDP-Glc, UDP-Gal, UDP-GlcNAc, UDP-GlcUA, UDP- Xyl, GDP-Man, GDP-Fuc and CMP-NeuNAc. Turning back now to the pathway in question, namely the nucleotide sugar metabolism pathway, it should be noted that the nucleotide sugars play an important role. Indeed, they are donors of certain important residues of sugar which are vital to glycosylation and by extension tot the production of polysaccharides. This process produces the substrates for glycosyltransferases. These sugars have several additional roles. For example, nucleotide sugars serve a vital purpose as the intermediates in interconversions of nucleotide sugars that result in the creation and activation of certain sugars necessary in the glycosylation reaction in certain organisms. Moreover, the process of glycosylation is attributed mostly (though not entirely) to the endoplasmic reticulum/golgi apparatus. Logically then, due to the important role of nucleotide sugars in glycosylation, a plethora of transporters exist which displace the sugars from their point of production, the cytoplasm, to where they are needed. In the case, the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus.


Pw000156 View Pathway

Inositol Phosphate Metabolism

Inositol phosphates are a group of molecules that are important for a number of cellular functions, such as cell growth, apoptosis, cell migration, endocytosis, and cell differentiation. Inositol phsosphates consist of an inositol (a sixfold alcohol of cyclohexane) phosphorylated at one or more positions. There are a number of different inositol phosphates found in mammals, distinguishable by the number and position of the phosphate groups. Inositol phosphate can be formed either as a product of phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism or from glucose 6-phosphate via the enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1. Conversion between the different types of inositol phosphates then occurs via a number of specific inositol phosphate kinases and phosphatases, which add (kinase) or remove (phosphatase) phosphate groups. The differing roles of the numerous inositol phosphates means that their metabolism must be tightly regulated. This is done via the localization and activation/deactivation of the various kinases and phosphatases, which can be found in the cytoplasm, nucleus or endoplasmic reticulum. The unphosphorylated inositol ring can be used to produce phosphoinositides through phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism.


Pw000168 View Pathway

Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Metabolism

Phosphatidylinositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, are intracellular signaling lipids. Seven different phosphoinositides have been identified in mammals, each distinguished by the number and/or position of the phosphate groups on the inositol ring. The inositol can be mono-, di-, or triphosphorylated, with the remaining phosphoinositides being isomers of these three forms. Phosphoinositides regulate a variety of signal transduction processes, thus playing a number of important roles in the cell, such as actin cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane transport, and cell proliferation. They may also affect protein localization, aggregation, and activity by acting as secondary messengers. The ability of the cell to recognize the different types of phosphoinositides as different cellular signals means that their synthesis and metabolism must be tightly regulated. Synthesis begins with the attachment of an inositol phosphate head group to diacylglycerol via a phospholipase C enzyme, creating a phosphoinositide. Conversion between the different types of phosphoinositides is then done by a number of specific phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases, which add (kinase) and remove (phosphatase) phosphates from the inositol ring. The specific localization and regulation of the phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases thus controls the activity of the phosphoinositides. While the phosphoinositides are always located in the membrane, their particular kinases and phosphatases may be found in the cytoplasm or in the membrane of the cell or cell organelles.
Showing 21 - 30 of 65006 pathways