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Showing 31 - 40 of 49832 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000151 View Pathway

Nicotinate and Nicotinamide Metabolism

Nicotinate (niacin) and nicotinamide - more commonly known as vitamin B3 - are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+). NAD+ synthesis occurs either de novo from amino acids, or a salvage pathway from nicotinamide. Most organisms use the de novo pathway whereas the savage pathway is only typically found in mammals. The specifics of the de novo pathway varies between organisms, but most begin by forming quinolinic acid (QA) from tryptophan (Trp) in animals, or aspartic acid in some bacteria (intestinal microflora) and plants. Nicotinate-nucleotide pyrophosphorylase converts QA into nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) by transfering a phosphoribose group. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase then transfers an adenylate group to form nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). Lastly, the nicotinic acid group is amidated to form a nicotinamide group, resulting in a molecule of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). Additionally, NAD can be phosphorylated to form NADP. The salvage pathway involves recycling nicotinamide and nicotinamide-containing molecules such as nicotinamide riboside. The precursors are fed into the NAD+ biosynthetic pathwaythrough adenylation and phosphoribosylation reactions. These compounds can be found in the diet, where the mixture of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are called vitamin B3 or niacin. These compounds are also produced within the body when the nicotinamide group is released from NAD+ in ADP-ribose transfer reactions.


Pw000012 View Pathway

Betaine Metabolism

Betaine (or trimethylglycine) is similar to choline (trimethylaminoethanol) but differs in choline's terminal carboxylic acid group trimethylglycine is reduced to a hydroxyl group. Betaine is obtained from diet as betaine or compounds containing choline in foods such as whole grains, beets and spinach. Betaine can also be synthesized from choline in the liver and kidney. First, choline is oxidized to betaine aldehyde by mitochondrial choline oxidase (choline dehydrogenase). Then, betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase oxidizes betaine aldehyde to betaine in the mitochondria or cytoplasm. In the liver, betaine functions as a methyl donor similar to choline, folic acid, S-adenosyl methionine and vitamin B12. Methyl donors are important for liver function, cellular replication and detoxification reactions. Betaine is also involved in the production of carnitine to protect from kidney damage and functions as an osmoprotectant in the inner medulla.


Pw000005 View Pathway

Citric Acid Cycle

The citric acid cycle, which is also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) or the Krebs cycle, is a connected series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions of central importance to all aerobic organisms (i.e. organisms that use oxygen for cellular respiration). The citric acid cycle is named after citrate or citric acid, a tricarboxylic acid that is both consumed and regenerated through this pathway. The citric acid cycle was discovered in 1937 by Hans Adolf Krebs while he worked at the University of Sheffield in England (PMID: 16746382). Krebs received the Nobel Prize for his discovery in 1953. Krebs’ extensive work on this pathway is also why the citric acid or TCA cycle is often referred to as the Krebs cycle. Metabolically, the citric acid cycle allows the release of energy (ultimately in the form of ATP) from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA. The citric acid cycle also produces CO2, the precursors for several amino acids (aspartate, asparagine, glutamine, proline) and NADH – all of which are used in other important metabolic pathways, such as amino acid synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). The net yield of one “turn” of the TCA cycle in terms of energy-containing compounds is one GTP, one FADH2, and three NADH molecules. The NADH molecules are used in oxidative phosphorylation to generate ATP. In eukaryotes, the citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix. In prokaryotes, the citric acid cycle occurs in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotes, the citric acid or TCA cycle has a total of 10 steps that are mediated by 8 different enzymes. Key to the whole cycle is the availability of acetyl-CoA. One of the primary sources of acetyl-CoA is from the breakdown of glucose (and other sugars) by glycolysis. This process generates pyruvate. Pyruvate is decarboxylated by pyruvate dehydrogenase to generate acetyl-CoA. The citric acid cycle begins with acetyl-CoA transferring its two-carbon acetyl group to the four-carbon acceptor compound (oxaloacetate) to form a six-carbon compound (citrate) through the enzyme citrate synthase. The resulting citrate is then converted to cis-aconitate and then isocitrate via the enzyme aconitase. The resulting isocitrate then combines with NAD+ to form oxalosuccinate and NADH, which is then converted into alpha-ketoglutarate (and CO2) through the action of the enzyme known as isocitrate dehydrogenase. The resulting alpha-ketoglutarate combines with NAD+ and CoA-SH to produce succinyl-CoA, NADH, and CO2. This step is mediated by the enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. The resulting succinyl-CoA combines with GDP and organic phosphate to produce succinate, CoA-SH, and GTP. This phosphorylation reaction is performed by succinyl-CoA synthase. The resulting succinate then combines with ubiquinone to produce two compounds, fumarate and ubiquinol through the action of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. The resulting fumarate is then hydrated by the enzyme known as fumarase to produce malate. The resulting malate is oxidized via NAD+ to produce oxaloacetate and NADH. This oxidation reaction is performed by malate dehydrogenase. The resulting oxaloacetate can then combine with acetyl-CoA and the TCA reaction cycle begins again. Overall, in the citric acid cycle, the starting six-carbon citrate molecule loses two carboxyl groups as CO2, leading to the production of a four-carbon oxaloacetate. The two-carbon acetyl-CoA that is the “fuel” for the TCA cycle can be generated by several metabolic pathways including glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and the metabolism of amino acids. The overall reaction for the citric acid cycle is as follows: acetyl-CoA + 3 NAD+ + FAD + GDP + P + 2H2O = CoA-SH + 3NADH + FADH2 + 3H+ + GTP + 2CO2. Many molecules in the citric acid cycle serve as key precursors for other molecules needed by cells. The citrate generated via the citric acid cycle can serve as an intermediate for fatty acid synthesis; alpha-ketoglutarate can serve as a precursor for glutamate, proline, and arginine; oxaloacetate can serve as a precursor for aspartate and asparagine; succinyl-CoA can serve as a precursor for porphyrins; and acetyl-CoA can serve as a precursor fatty acids, cholesterol, vitamin D, and various steroid hormones. There are several variations to the citric acid cycle that are known. Interestingly, most of the variation lies with the step involving succinyl-CoA production or conversion. Humans and other animals have two different types of succinyl-CoA synthetases. One produces GTP from GDP, while the other produces ATP from ADP (PMID: 9765291). On the other hand, plants have a succinyl-CoA synthetase that produces ATP (ADP-forming succinyl-CoA synthetase) (Jones RC, Buchanan BB, Gruissem W. (2000). Biochemistry & molecular biology of plants (1st ed.). Rockville, Md: American Society of Plant Physiologists. ISBN 0-943088-39-9.). In certain acetate-producing bacteria, such as Acetobacter aceti, an enzyme known as succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase performs this conversion (PMID: 18502856) while in Helicobacter pylori succinyl-CoA:acetoacetate CoA-transferase is responsible for this reaction (PMID: 9325289). The citric acid cycle is regulated in a number of ways but the primary mechanism is by product inhibition. For instance, NADH inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase. Acetyl-CoA inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase, while succinyl-CoA inhibits alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase. Additionally, ATP inhibits citrate synthase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. Calcium is another important regulator of the citric acid cycle. In particular, it activates pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase, which then activates pyruvate dehydrogenase. Calcium also activates isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (PMID: 171557).


Pw000050 View Pathway

Steroid Biosynthesis

The steroid biosynthesis (or cholesterol biosynthesis) pathway is an anabolic metabolic pathway that produces steroids from simple precursors. It starts with the mevalonate pathway, where acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA are the first two building blocks. These compounds are joined together via the enzyme hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl (HMG)-CoA synthase to produce the compound known as hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA). This compound is then reduced to mevalonic acid via the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. It is important to note that HMG-CoA reductase is the protein target of many cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins (PMID: 12602122). The resulting mevalonic acid (or mevalonate) is then phosphorylated by the enzyme known as mevalonate kinase to form mevalonate-5-phosphate, which is then phosphorylated again by phosphomevalonate kinase to form mevolonate-5-pyrophsophate. This pyrophosphorylated compound is subsequently decarboxylated via the enzyme mevolonate-5-pyrophsophate decarboxylase to form isopentylpyrophosphate (IPP). IPP can also be isomerized (via isopentenyl-PP-isomerase) to form dimethylallylpyrophosphate (DMAPP). IPP and DMAPP can both donate isoprene units, which can then be joined together to make farnesyl and geranylgeranyl intermediates. Specifically, three molecules of IPP condense to form farnesyl pyrophosphate through the action of the enzyme known as geranyl transferase. Two molecules of farnesyl pyrophosphate then condense to form a molecule known as squalene by the action of the enzyme known as squalene synthase in the cell’s endoplasmic reticulum. The enzyme oxidosqualene cyclase then cyclizes squalene to form lanosterol. Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid, and serves as the framework from which all steroids are derived. 14-Demethylation of lanosterol by a cytochrome P450 enzyme known as CYP51 eventually yields cholesterol. Cholesterol is the central steroid in human biology. It can be obtained from animal fats consumed in the diet or synthesized de novo (as described above). Cholesterol is an essential constituent of lipid bilayer membranes (where it forms cholesterol esters) and is the starting point for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and bile salts, and vitamin D. Steroid hormones are mostly synthesized in the adrenal gland and gonads. They regulate energy metabolism and stress responses (via glucocorticoids such as cortisol), salt balance (mineralocorticoids such as aldosterone), and sexual development and function (via androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol). Bile acids and bile salts (such as taurocholate) are mostly synthesized in the liver. They are released into the intestine and function as detergents to solubilize dietary fats. Cholesterol is the main constituent of atheromas. These are the fatty lumps found in the walls of arteries that occur in atherosclerosis and, when ruptured, can cause heart attacks.


Pw000144 View Pathway

Glycerolipid Metabolism

The glycerolipid metabolism pathway describes the synthesis of glycerolipids such as monoacylglycerols (MAGs), diacylglycerols (DAGs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), phosphatidic acids (PAs), and lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs). The process begins with cytoplasmic 3-phosphoglyceric acid (a product of glycolysis). This molecule is dephosphorylated via the enzyme glycerate kinase to produce glyceric acid. Glyceric acid is then transformed to glycerol (via the action of aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldose reductase). The free, cytoplasmic glycerol can then be phosphorylated to glycerol-3-phosphate through the action of glycerol kinase. Glycerol-3-phosphate can then enter the endoplasmic reticulum where glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) may combine various acyl-CoA moieties (which donate acyl groups) to form lysophosphatidic (LPA) or phosphatidic acid (PA). The resulting phosphatidic acids can be dephosphorylated via lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (also known as phosphatidate phosphatase) to produce diacylglycerols (DAGs). The resulting DAGs can be converted into triacylglycerols (TAGs) via the addition of another acyl group (contributed via acyl-CoA) and the action of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase. Extracellularly, the triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be converted to monoacylglycerols (MAGs) through the action of hepatic triacylglycerol lipase. In addition to this cytoplasmic route of glycerolipid synthesis, another route via mitochondrial synthesis also exists. This route begins with glycerol-3-phosphate, which can be either derived from dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), a product of glycolysis (usually in the cytoplasm of liver or adipose tissue cells) or from glycerol itself. Glycerol-3-phosphate in the mitochondria is first acylated via acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) through the action of mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase to form lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Once synthesized, lysophosphatidic acid is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA via the action of 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acetyltransferase to yield phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid is then dephosphorylated to form diacylglycerol. Specifically, diacylglycerol is formed by the action of phosphatidate phosphatase (also known as lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase) on phosphatidic acid coupled with the release of a phosphate. The phosphatase exists as 3 isozymes. Diacylglycerol is a precursor to triacylglycerol (triglyceride), which is formed in the addition of a third fatty acid to the diacylglycerol by the action of diglyceride acyltransferase. Since diacylglycerol is synthesized via phosphatidic acid, it will usually contain a saturated fatty acid at the C-1 position on the glycerol moiety and an unsaturated fatty acid at the C-2 position. When the body uses stored fat as a source of energy, glycerol and fatty acids are released into the bloodstream. Fatty acids, stored as triglycerides in humans, are an important and a particularly rich source of energy. The energy yield from a gram of fatty acids is approximately 9 kcal/g (39 kJ/g), compared to 4 kcal/g (17 kJ/g) for carbohydrates. Since the hydrocarbon portion of fatty acids is hydrophobic, these molecules can be stored in a relatively anhydrous (water-free) environment. Fatty acids can hold more than six times the amount of energy than sugars on a weight basis. In other words, if you relied on sugars or carbohydrates to store energy, then you would need to carry 67.5 lb (31 kg) of glycogen to have the energy equivalent to 10 lb (5 kg) of fat.


Pw000156 View Pathway

Inositol Phosphate Metabolism

Inositol phosphates are a group of molecules that are important for a number of cellular functions, such as cell growth, apoptosis, cell migration, endocytosis, and cell differentiation. Inositol phsosphates consist of an inositol (a sixfold alcohol of cyclohexane) phosphorylated at one or more positions. There are a number of different inositol phosphates found in mammals, distinguishable by the number and position of the phosphate groups. Inositol phosphate can be formed either as a product of phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism or from glucose 6-phosphate via the enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase 1. Conversion between the different types of inositol phosphates then occurs via a number of specific inositol phosphate kinases and phosphatases, which add (kinase) or remove (phosphatase) phosphate groups. The differing roles of the numerous inositol phosphates means that their metabolism must be tightly regulated. This is done via the localization and activation/deactivation of the various kinases and phosphatases, which can be found in the cytoplasm, nucleus or endoplasmic reticulum. The unphosphorylated inositol ring can be used to produce phosphoinositides through phosphatidylinositol phosphate metabolism.


Pw000168 View Pathway

Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Metabolism

Phosphatidylinositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, are intracellular signaling lipids. Seven different phosphoinositides have been identified in mammals, each distinguished by the number and/or position of the phosphate groups on the inositol ring. The inositol can be mono-, di-, or triphosphorylated, with the remaining phosphoinositides being isomers of these three forms. Phosphoinositides regulate a variety of signal transduction processes, thus playing a number of important roles in the cell, such as actin cytoskeletal reorganization, membrane transport, and cell proliferation. They may also affect protein localization, aggregation, and activity by acting as secondary messengers. The ability of the cell to recognize the different types of phosphoinositides as different cellular signals means that their synthesis and metabolism must be tightly regulated. Synthesis begins with the attachment of an inositol phosphate head group to diacylglycerol via a phospholipase C enzyme, creating a phosphoinositide. Conversion between the different types of phosphoinositides is then done by a number of specific phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases, which add (kinase) and remove (phosphatase) phosphates from the inositol ring. The specific localization and regulation of the phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases thus controls the activity of the phosphoinositides. While the phosphoinositides are always located in the membrane, their particular kinases and phosphatases may be found in the cytoplasm or in the membrane of the cell or cell organelles.


Pw000170 View Pathway

Plasmalogen Synthesis

Plasmalogens are a class of phospholipids found in animals. Plasmalogens are thought to influence membrane dynamics and fatty acid levels, while also having roles in intracellular signalling and as antioxidants. Plasmalogens consist of a glycerol backbone with an vinyl-ether-linked alkyl chain at the sn-1 position, an ester-linked long-chain fatty acid at the sn-2 position, and a head group attached to the sn-3 position through a phosphodiester linkage. It is the vinyl-ether-linkage that separates plasmalogens from other phospholipids. Plasmalogen biosynthesis begins in the peroxisomes, where the integral membrane protein dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT) catalyzes the esterification of the free hydroxyl group of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) with a molecule any of long chain acyl CoA. Next, alkyl-DHAP synthase, a peroxisomal enzyme associated with DHAPAT, replaces the fatty acid on the DHAP with a long chain fatty alcohol. The third step of plasmalogen biosynthesis is catalyzed by the enzyme acyl/alkyl-DHAP reductase, which is found in the membrane of both the peroxisome and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Acyl/alkyl-DHAP reductase uses NADPH as a cofactor to reduce the ketone of the 1-alkyl-DHAP using a classical hydride transfer mechanism. The remainder of plasmalogen synthesis occurs using enzymes in the ER. Lysophosphatidate acyltransferases (LPA-ATs) transfer the acyl component of a polyunsaturated acyl-CoA to the the 1-alkyl-DHAP, creating a 1-alkyl-2-acylglycerol 3-phosphate. The phosphate is then removed by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase I (PAP-I), and the head group is attached by a choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase. The majority of plasmalogens have either ethanolamine or choline as a headgroup, although a small amount of serine and inositol-linked ether-phospholipids can also be found. In the final step, the vinyl-ether linkage is created by plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, which catalyzes the formation of a double bond in the alkyl chain of the plasmalogen.


Pw122268 View Pathway

Kidney Function- Proximal Convoluted Tubule

The proximal convoluted tubule is part of the nephron between the Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle. The proximal convoluted tubule functions to reabsorb sodium, water, and other ions. Sodium and bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) are transported by a co-transporter that is responsible for the majority of sodium reabsorption. The bicarbonate, along with hydrogen, are exchanged across the basal and apical membranes, respectively, to effectively regulate the pH of the filtrate. In addition, chloride ions are not normally reabsorbed in large amounts at the proximal tubule compared to other parts of the nephron. However, the reabsorption of chloride, as well as potassium, increases as the amount of water reabsorption increases due to solvent drag (also known as bulk transport). This occurrence explains solute movement secondary to water flow. All the cation and anion transport creates a gradient favourable for ion and water reabsorption, leading to an increase in blood pressure.


Pw000017 View Pathway

Catecholamine Biosynthesis

The Catecholamine Biosynthesis pathway depicts the synthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. Catecholamines are chemical hormones released from the adrenal glands as a response to stress that activate the sympathetic nervous system. They are composed of a catechol group and are derived from amino acids. The commonly found catecholamines are epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and dopamine. They are synthesized in catecholaminergic neurons by four enzymes, beginning with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which generates L-DOPA from tyrosine. The L-DOPA is then converted to dopamine via aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), which becomes norepinephrine via dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH); and finally is converted to epinephrine via phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT).
Showing 31 - 40 of 49832 pathways