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Showing 41 - 50 of 49833 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins

SMP0062895

Pw063854 View Pathway
Drug Action

Tritoqualine H1-Antihistamine Action

Tritoqualine is an H1-antihistamine. H1-antihistamines interfere with the agonist action of histamine at the H1 receptor and are administered to attenuate inflammatory process in order to treat conditions such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. Reducing the activity of the NF-κB immune response transcription factor through the phospholipase C and the phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) signalling pathways also decreases antigen presentation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemotactic factors. Furthermore, lowering calcium ion concentration leads to increased mast cell stability which reduces further histamine release. First-generation antihistamines readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation and other adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. nervousness and insomnia). Second-generation antihistamines are more selective for H1-receptors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, these newer drugs elicit fewer adverse drug reactions.

SMP0000703

Pw000680 View Pathway
Drug Action

Trisalicylate-Choline Action Pathway

Trisalicylate-Choline (also named Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It can be used to treat pain and fever. Trisalicylate-Choline can block prostaglandin synthesis by the action of inhibition of prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2. Prostaglandin G/H synthase 1 and 2 catalyze the arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2, and also catalyze prostaglandin G2 to prostaglandin H2 in the metabolism pathway. Decreased prostaglandin synthesis in many animal model's cell is caused by presence of trisalicylate-choline.

SMP0057581

Pw058506 View Pathway
Drug Action

Triprolidine H1-Antihistamine Action

Triprolidine is a first-generation alkylamine H1-antihistamine. H1-antihistamines interfere with the agonist action of histamine at the H1 receptor and are administered to attenuate inflammatory process in order to treat conditions such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. Reducing the activity of the NF-κB immune response transcription factor through the phospholipase C and the phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) signalling pathways also decreases antigen presentation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemotactic factors. Furthermore, lowering calcium ion concentration leads to increased mast cell stability which reduces further histamine release. First-generation antihistamines readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation and other adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. nervousness and insomnia). Second-generation antihistamines are more selective for H1-receptors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, these newer drugs elicit fewer adverse drug reactions.

SMP0057587

Pw058512 View Pathway
Drug Action

Tripelennamine H1-Antihistamine Action

Tripelennamine is a first-generation ethylenediamine H1-antihistamine. H1-antihistamines interfere with the agonist action of histamine at the H1 receptor and are administered to attenuate inflammatory process in order to treat conditions such as allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, and urticaria. Reducing the activity of the NF-κB immune response transcription factor through the phospholipase C and the phosphatidylinositol (PIP2) signalling pathways also decreases antigen presentation and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, cell adhesion molecules, and chemotactic factors. Furthermore, lowering calcium ion concentration leads to increased mast cell stability which reduces further histamine release. First-generation antihistamines readily cross the blood-brain barrier and cause sedation and other adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects (e.g. nervousness and insomnia). Second-generation antihistamines are more selective for H1-receptors of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and do not cross the blood-brain barrier. Consequently, these newer drugs elicit fewer adverse drug reactions.

SMP0000563

Pw000539 View Pathway
Disease

Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency

Triosephosphate isomerase deficiency is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the TPI1 gene. The mutation of this gene causes the production of enzymes that are unstable or enzymes that have reduced activity. This means that cells have reduced energy supplies as glycolysis is compromised. This disorder causes anemia, movement problems and muscle weakness. As a result of the lack of red blood cells to carry oxygen through the body, patients may experience fatigue and shortness of breath. Movement problems appear in early infancy, typically before the age of 2 in patients with this disorder. Treatment includes blood transfusions.

SMP0000545

Pw000521 View Pathway
Disease

Trifunctional Protein Deficiency

Trifunctional protein deficiency is a condition caused by mutations in the genes HADHA and HADHB. The enzyme affected is required to metabolize long-chain fatty acids, which makes a patients ability to convert fats to energy very difficult. This is exacerbated by periods without food. The symptoms associated with this disorder differ depending on when they appear in a patient. In infancy, symptoms would include lethargy, hypoglycaemia and hypotonia. Infants are also at higher risk for sudden death and heart problems. Later onset trifunctional protein deficiency symptoms also include hypotonia, but also include breakdown of muscle tissue and peripheral neuropathy. Treatment includes a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and avoiding fasting, as this can induce symptoms of this condition.

SMP0000121

Pw000339 View Pathway
Drug Action

Trichlormethiazide Action Pathway

Trichlormethiazide is a pharmacologically-active small molecule that belongs to a class of drugs called thiazides. Thiazides and thiazide-like drugs are diuretics commonly employed to control hypertension. Trichloromethiazide acts by inhibiting chloride and potentially sodium reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle, specifically at solute carrier family 12 member 3. This action results in increased fluid loss which ultimately reduces blood volume and pressure. Trichlormethiazide also acts to inhibit sodium uptake and increase potassium excretion which also serves to increase fluid loss. The long-term antihypertensive effects of thiazides and thiazide-like drugs such as trichlormethiazide are not well-characterized but may involve its action on carbonic anhydrases.

SMP0000132

Pw000341 View Pathway
Drug Action

Triamterene Action Pathway

Triamterene is a diuretic that belongs to the potassium-sparing class of drugs which are commonly used to manage hypertension and edema. It acts by blocking epithelial sodium channels in the late distal convoluted tubule of the nephron. Specifically, triamterene inhibits amiloride-sensitive sodium channels which are responsible for the reabsorption of sodium in the late distal convoluted tubule in the nephron. This primarily contributes to an increase in sodium excretion and consequentially, fluid excretion which decreases blood volume and blood pressure. Potassium secretion is indirectly affected by the inhibition of sodium reabsorption due to the elimination of the electrochemical gradient that drives potassium loss. This leads to an increase in serum potassium concentration -- a common action for potassium-sparing drugs -- and has the potential to induce hyperkalemia which can potentially lead to severe heart arrhythmias.

SMP0000467

Pw000169 View Pathway
Metabolic

Trehalose Degradation

Trehalose, also known as mycose or tremalose, is a sugar consisting of two 1-1 alpha bonded glucose molecules. It is produced by some plants, bacteria, fungi and invertebrates, and can be used as a source of energy, such as for flight in insects, and as a survival mechanism to avoid freezing and dehydration. After ingestion in the intestine lumen, trehalose can interact with trehalase, which exists in the brush border of the cells there. In a reaction that also requires a water molecule, it is broken. These are then transported into the epithelial cells along with a sodium ion by a sodium/glucose cotransporter, which can bring glucose up its gradient along with sodium moving down its gradient. Once inside the cell, the glucose can then be transported out of the basolateral membrane by a solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter. From there, the glucose enters the blood stream, and is transported to liver hepatocytes. Once in the liver, glucokinase can use the energy and phosphate from a molecule of ATP to form glucose-6-phosphate, which then goes on to start the process of glycolysis.

SMP0000476

Pw000255 View Pathway
Drug Action

Trastuzumab Action Pathway

Trastuzumab is an anti-EGFR drug used in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. EGFR is linked multiple signalling pathways involved in tumour growth and angiogenesis such as the Ras/Raf pathway and the PI3K/Akt pathways. These pathways ultimately lead to the activation of transcription factors such as Jun, Fos, and Myc, as well as cyclin D1, which stimulates cell growth and mitosis. Uncontrolled cell growth and mitosis leads to cancer. Trastuzumab acts as an anticancer drug by binding to the extracellular domain of the EGFR and preventing its activation by epidermal growth factor. This in turn inhibits downstream signalling and prevents tumour growth.
Showing 41 - 50 of 49833 pathways