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Showing 51 - 60 of 49832 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000032 View Pathway

Pantothenate and CoA Biosynthesis

Pantothenate, also called vitamin B5, is a nutrient that everyone requires in their diet. The nutrient gets its name from the greek word “pantothen” which means “from everywhere.” The reason it is called this is because pantothenic acid is found in almost every food. It is a precursor of coenzyme A, which is an essential part of many reactions in the body, specifically important in the production of compounds like cholesterol and different fatty acids. Most of pantothenic acid is found in food as phosphopentetheine or coenzyme A. Pantothenic acid, pantetheine 4’-phosphate and pantetheine are all found in red blood cells. The 6 step process in which coenzyme A is created begins with the creation of pantothenic acid from pantetheine, which is catalyzed by the enzyme pantetheinase. Pantothenic acid then works with pantothenate kinase 1 to produce D-4’-phosphopantothenate. This compound quickly becomes 4’phosphopantothenoylcysteine through the enzyme phosphopantothenate-cysteine ligase. 4’phosphopantothenoylcysteine then uses phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase to create pantetheine 4’-phosphate. This compound then undergoes two reactions, both resulting in the production of dephospho-CoA; the first reaction uses ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 1, the second uses bifunctional coenzyme A synthase. In the final step of coenzyme A synthesization, bifunctional coenzyme A synthase catalyzes dephospho-CoA into coenzyme A.


Pw000049 View Pathway

Lactose Synthesis

Lactose synthesis occurs only in the mammary glands, producing lactose (4-O-B-D-galactosylpyranosyl-a-D-glucopyranoside), the major sugar in milk. Lactose is created by joining two monosaccarides with a B1,4 glycosidic bond. Glucose is first converted to UDP-galactose via the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. UDP-galactose is then transported into the Golgi by the UDP galactose translocator, an antiporter which uses facilitated transport to move UDP galactose into the Golgi and exports UMP. Once inside the Golgi, the UDP galactose and glucose (which moves into the golgi via the GLUT-1 transporter) become substrates for the lactose synthase enzyme complex, comprised of the enzymatic subunit, galactosyltransferase with its regulatory subunit, Alpha-lactalbumin. Lactose synthase creates lactose through bonding galactose from UDP to glucose through a glycosidic bond. Although GT is found in many tissues in the body, Alpha-lactalbumin is only found on the inner surface of the Golgi in the mammary glands, limiting lactose production to the mammaries.


Pw000044 View Pathway

Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

This pathway describes the production and subsequent metabolism of arachidonic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. In resting cells arachidonic acid is present in the phospholipids (especially phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine) of membranes of the body’s cells, and is particularly abundant in the brain. Typically a receptor-dependent event, requiring a transducing G protein, initiates phospholipid hydrolysis and releases the fatty acid into the intracellular medium. Three enzymes mediate this deacylation reaction including phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phospholipase C (PLC), and phospholipase D (PLD). Once released, free arachidonate has three possible fates: 1) reincorporation into phospholipids, 2) diffusion outside the cell, and 3) metabolism. Arachidonate metabolism is carried out by three distinct enzyme classes: cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, and cytochrome P450’s. Specifically, the enzymes cyclooxygenase and peroxidase lead to the synthesis of prostaglandin H2, which in turn is used to produce the prostaglandins, prostacyclin, and thromboxanes. The enzyme 5-lipoxygenase leads to 5-HPETE, which in turn is used to produce the leukotrienes, hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) and lipoxins. Some arachidonic acid is converted into midchain HETEs, omega-chain HETEs, dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase hydroxylase activity. Several products of these pathways act within neurons to modulate the activities of ion channels, protein kinases, ion pumps, and neurotransmitter uptake systems, affecting processes such as cellular proliferation, inflammation, and hemostasis. The newly formed eicosanoids may also exit the cell of origin and bind to G-protein-coupled receptors present on nearby neurons or glial cells.


Pw000025 View Pathway

Fructose and Mannose Degradation

Fructose and mannose are monosaccharides that can be found in many foods. Fructose can join with glucose to form sucrose. Mannose can be converted to glucose. Both may be used as food sweeteners. Fructose is well absorbed, especially in the presence of glucose. Fructose causes less of an insulin response compared to glucose and thus may be a preferred sugar for diabetics. In contrast to fructose, humans do not metabolize mannose well with the majority of it being excreted unchanged. Mannose in the urine can be beneficial in treating urinary tract infections caused be E. coli. However, mannose can be detrimental to humans by causing diabetic complications.


Pw000013 View Pathway

Biotin Metabolism

Biotin is a vitamin that is an essential nutrient for humans. Biotin can be absorbed from consuming various foods such as: legumes, soybeans, tomatoes, romaine lettuce, eggs, cow's milk, oats and many more. Biotin acts as a cofactor for enzymes to catalyze carboxylation reactions involved in gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism and fatty acid metabolism. Biotin deficiency has been associated with many human diseases. These diseases may be caused by dysfunctional biotin metabolism due to enzyme deficiencies. Some research suggests biotin may play a role in transcription regulation or protein expression which may lead to biotin related diseases.


Pw000037 View Pathway

Spermidine and Spermine Biosynthesis

The Spermidine and Spermine Biosynthesis pathway highlights the creation of these cruicial polyamines. Spermidine and spermine are produced in many tissues, as they are involved in the regulation of genetic processes from DNA synthesis to cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. These positiviely charged amines interact with negatively charged phosphates in nucleic acids to exert their regulatory effects on cellular processes. Spermidine originates from the action of spermidine synthase, which converts the methionine derivative S-adenosylmethionine and the ornithine derivative putrescine into spermidine 5'-methylthioadenosine. Spermidine is subsequently processed into spermine by spermine synthase in the presence of the aminopropyl donor, S-adenosylmethioninamine.


Pw122396 View Pathway

Arsenate Detoxification

Arsenate is a compound similar to phosphate, but containing an arsenic atom instead of the phosphorous. As such, it is treated similarly to a phosphate ion. However, if the arsenate replaces inorganic phosphates in glycolysis, it allows glycolysis to proceed, but does not generate ATP, uncoupling glycolysis. It can also bind to lipoic acid in the Krebs cycle, leading to a greater loss of ATP. Arsenate can enter into the cell via aquaporins 7 and 9, as well as facilitated glucose transporter members 1 and 4 of solute carrier family 2, and does so by diffusion. Once inside the cell, the arsenate can be converted to arsenite via the glutathione S-transferase omega-1 enzyme, or it can be converted to ribose-1-arsenate via the purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Ribose-1-arsenate then can spontaneously form arsenite through a reaction involving hydrogen and dihydrolipoate. After arsenite has been formed by either of these methods, arsenite methyltransferase catalyzes its formation into methylarsonate. From here, it forms methylarsonite via the glutathione S-transferase omega-1 enzyme again. The methylarsonite reacts with S-adenosylmethionine, catalyzed by arsenite methyltransferase, in order to become dimethylarsinate. Finally, the compound once again interacts with the glutathione S-transferase omega-1 enzyme to form dimethylarsinous acid, the final compound in this pathway.


Pw122401 View Pathway

Aldosterone from Steroidogenesis

Aldosterone is a hormone produced in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex. It's function is to act on the distal convoluted tubule and the collecting duct of the nephron to make them more permeable to sodium to allow for its reuptake (in addition to allowing potassium wasting). As a result, water follows the sodium back into the body. The water retention contributes to an increased blood volume. Angiotensin II from the circulation binds to receptors on the zona glomerulosa cell membrane, activating the G protein and triggering a signaling cascade. The end result is the activation of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein that permits cholesterol uptake into the mitochondria. From there, cholesterol undergoes a series of reactions in both the mitochondrion and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (steroidogenesis) where it finally becomes aldosterone.


Pw000152 View Pathway


Gluconeogenesis, which is essentially the reverse of glycolysis, results in the sythesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids. In animals, gluconeogenesis occurs primarily in the liver, and in the renal cortex to a lesser extent. This process occurs during periods of fasting or intense exercise. Gluconeogenesis is often associated with ketosis. Several non-carbohydrate carbon substrates can enter the gluconeogenesis pathway. One common substrate is lactic acid, formed during anaerobic respiration in skeletal muscle. Lactate may also come from red blood cells, which obtain energy solely from glycolysis as they have no membrane-bound organelles for aerobic respiration. Lactate is transported to the liver to be converted into pyruvate in the Cori cycle by lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate can then be used to generate glucose via gluconeogenesis. Many other compounds can also function as substrates for gluconeogenesis such as citric acid cycle intermediates (through conversion to oxaloacetate), amino acids other than lysine or leucine, and glycerol .


Pw000169 View Pathway

Trehalose Degradation

Trehalose, also known as mycose or tremalose, is a sugar consisting of two 1-1 alpha bonded glucose molecules. It is produced by some plants, bacteria, fungi and invertebrates, and can be used as a source of energy, such as for flight in insects, and as a survival mechanism to avoid freezing and dehydration. After ingestion in the intestine lumen, trehalose can interact with trehalase, which exists in the brush border of the cells there. In a reaction that also requires a water molecule, it is broken. These are then transported into the epithelial cells along with a sodium ion by a sodium/glucose cotransporter, which can bring glucose up its gradient along with sodium moving down its gradient. Once inside the cell, the glucose can then be transported out of the basolateral membrane by a solute carrier family 2 facilitated glucose transporter. From there, the glucose enters the blood stream, and is transported to liver hepatocytes. Once in the liver, glucokinase can use the energy and phosphate from a molecule of ATP to form glucose-6-phosphate, which then goes on to start the process of glycolysis.
Showing 51 - 60 of 49832 pathways