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Showing 71 - 80 of 49832 pathways
SMPDB ID Pathway Chemical Compounds Proteins


Pw000026 View Pathway

Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle

The glycerol phosphate shuttle also known as the glycerophosphate shuttle. It shuttles electrons to mitochondrial carriers in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway from cytosolic NADH. This shuttle relies on mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH). This is also a common process for the cell to regenerate cytosolic NAD+ for other processes.


Pw000014 View Pathway

Butyrate Metabolism

Butyrate metabolism (Butanoate metabolism) describes the metabolic fate of a number of short chain fatty acids or short chain alcohols that are typically produced by intestinal fermentation. Many of these molecules are eventually used in the production of ketone bodies, the creation of short-chain lipids or as precursors to the citrate cycle, glycolysis or glutamate synthesis. The molecule for which this pathway is named, butyric acid, is a four-carbon fatty acid that is formed in the human colon by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates (including dietary fiber). It is found in rancid butter, parmesan cheese, and vomit, and has an unpleasant odor and acrid taste, with a sweet aftertaste (similar to ether).


Pw000033 View Pathway

Phenylacetate Metabolism

Phenylacetate (or phenylacetic acid) metabolism involves two steps. The first step is the conversion of phenylacetate into phenylacetyl-CoA which is catalyzed by acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ACSM1 or acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ACSM2B. Coenzyme A and ATP are also involved in this first step and AMP and pyrophosphate will be generated during the first step of metabolism. In the second step, phenylacetyl-CoA and L-glutamine interacts with glycine N-acyltransferase to generate coenzyme A as well as phenylacetylglutamine, of which the latter will be excreted in the urine. Phenylacetate metabolism provides a route that facilitates the excretion of nitrogen for patients with urea cycle defects; hence, it is important for clinical purposes.


Pw000146 View Pathway


Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway with sequence of ten reactions involving ten intermediate compounds that converts glucose to pyruvate. Glycolysis release free energy for forming high energy compound such as ATP and NADH. Glycolysis is consisted of two phases, which one of them is chemical priming phase and second phase is energy-yielding phase. As the starting compound of chemical priming phase, D-glucose can be obtained from galactose metabolism or imported by monosaccharide-sensing protein 1 from outside of cell. D-Glucose is catalyzed by probable hexokinase-like 2 protein to form glucose 6-phosphate which is powered by ATP. Glucose 6-phosphate transformed to fructose 6-phosphate by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, which the later compound will be converted to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, which is the last reaction of chemical priming phase by 6-phosphofructokinase with cofactor magnesium, and it is also powered by ATP. Before entering the second phase, aldolase catalyzing the hydrolysis of F1,6BP into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. Dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate can convert to each other bidirectionally by facilitation of triosephosphate isomerase. The second phase of glycolysis is yielding-energy phase that produce ATP and NADH. At the first step, D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate is catalyzed to glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase with NAD, which also generate NADH. ATP is generated through the reaction that convert glyceric acid 1,3-biphosphate to 3-phosphoglyceric acid. Phosphoglycerate mutase 2 catalyze 3-phosphoglyceric acid to 2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid, and alpha-enolase with cofactor magnesium catalyzes 2-Phospho-D-glyceric acid to phosphoenolpyruvic acid. Eventually, plastidial pyruvate kinase 4 converts phosphoenolpyruvic acid to pyruvate with cofactor magnesium and potassium and ADP. Pyruvate will undergo pyruvate metabolism, tyrosine metabolism and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis.


Pw000172 View Pathway

Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty Acids

Beta-oxidation is the major degradative pathway for fatty acid esters in humans. Fatty acids and their CoA esters are found throughout the body, playing roles such as components of cellular lipids, regulators of enzymes and membrane channels, ligands for nuclear receptors, precursor molecules for hormones, and signalling molecules. Beta-oxidation occurs in the peroxisomes and mitochondria, the latter of which is depicted here. Whether beta-oxidation starts in the mitochondria or the peroxisome depends on the length of the fatty acid. Medium to long chain fatty acids go directly to the mitochondria, whereas very long chain fatty acids (>22 carbons) may be first metabolized down to octanyl-CoA in the peroxisomes and then transported to the mitochondria for the remainder of the oxidation. Beta-oxidation begins with activation of fatty acids by an acyl-coenzyme A synthetase. ATP is used to produce reactive fatty acyl adenylate that can then react with coenzyme A to produce a fatty acyl-CoA. Short and medium chain fatty acids can enter the mitochondria directly via diffusion where they are activated in the mitochondrial matrix by acyl-coenzyme A synthetases. In the first step of the beta-oxidation cycle, a double bond between C-2 and C-3 is formed, producing a trans-Δ2-enoyl-CoA. This is catalyzed by acyl-CoA-dehydrogenases in the mitochondria, which have forms specific to the different lengths of fatty acids. In the second step, enoyl CoA hydratase hydrates the newly formed double bond between C-2 and C-3, producing an L-beta-hydroxyacyl CoA. Next, L-beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase converts the hydroxyl group into a keto group, producing a beta-ketoacyl CoA. In the fourth and final step, the enzyme beta-ketothiolase cleaves the β-ketoacyl CoA and inserts the thiol group of another CoA between C-2 and C-3, reducing the acyl-CoA by 2 carbons and generating acetyl-CoA. The final two steps also have enzymatic forms specific to short chain fatty acids. Additionally, there is a trifunctional protein complex with enzymatic activity capable of performing all of the final 3 steps (hydratase, dehydrogenase, thiolase) in medium to very long chain fatty acids. This four step cycle repeats, removing 2 carbons from the fatty acid each time until it becomes acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is necessary for the citric acid cycle, among other cellular processes.


Pw000456 View Pathway

DNA Replication Fork

DNA is composed of two long and complementary strands, with a backbone on the outside and nucleotides in the middle. During replication the two strands of DNA separate; the resulting structure is called the replication fork. The replication fork forms because enzymes called helicases surround the DNA strands and break the hydrogen bonds which hold them together. The result is that two long branches, almost like fork prongs, each of which is a DNA strand. Replication of DNA has two main different processes. Because DNA is replicated in the 5' to 3' direction, and because both DNA strands in the replication fork are negative mirror images of each other, and because the replication fork is created on only one direction down the length of the DNA, two types of replication strands are formed: the leading and the lagging strand. These strands are so named by the way in which DNA polymerase reads the original DNA strand and attaches the complementary nucleotides as it makes its way along the chain. Because the direction of the movement of the replication fork, and the direction of the addition of nucleotides in the leading strand is the same, the process is continuous.That is, a polymerase is able to read the DNA and add the matching nucleotide bases to it continuously. In prokaryotes DNA polymerase III is responsible for creating the leading strand. The lagging strand is oriented in the opposite direction to the leading strand. Thus, replication of the lagging strand occurs in the opposing direction to that of the leading strand and the replication fork. As a result, replication of the lagging strand is a slower and more complicated process than that of the leading strand. Thus it is seen to lag behind the leading strand (hence the name).


Pw000153 View Pathway

Lactose Degradation

Lactose degradation (Lactose metabolism) shows the breakdown of alpha lactose into its constituent sugars, which are then utilized by the body as an energy source. Alpha-Lactose is the major sugar present in milk and the main source of energy supplied to the newborn mammalian in its mother’s milk. Lactose is also an important osmotic regulator of lactation. It is digested by the intestinal lactase, an enzyme expressed in newborns. Its activity declines following weaning. Lactase hydrolyzes alpha lactose into D-glucose and D-galactose, which are actively transported into the intestinal epithelial cells via the SGLT1 (GLUT1) cotransporter. GLUT1 actively transports glucose and galactose with 2 sodium ions. A sodium/potassium ATPase makes ATP by moving three sodium ions to the blood per two potassium ions that cross into the epithelial cell, giving the GLUT1 transporter energy to work. D-glucose and D-galactose diffuse into the blood, facilitated by the SLC2A2 transporter on the basolateral membrane on the intestinal epithelial cells. The sugars are then transported to liver.


Pw000045 View Pathway

Androgen and Estrogen Metabolism

This pathway describes the inactivation and catabolism of male (androgen) and female (estrogen) hormones. Many steroid hormones are transformed by sulfatases, dehydrogenases and glucuronide transferases to enhance their solubility and to facilitate their elimination. Inactivation means to convert an active compound into an inactive compound. Peripheral inactivation, which is inactivation caused by outside enzymes such as liver enzymes for example, is needed to maintain a steady-state level of plasma. This means that if either of these hormones are to be “chemical signals”, their half-life in the bloodstream has to be limited so that a variation in secretion rate can be emulated in the plasma. A large part of inactivation/catabolism occurs in the liver, although a little bit of catabolic activity does happen in the kidneys. Inactive androgens and estrogens are mostly eliminated in the urine. For this to happen, androgen and estrogen need to be converted to compounds that are less hydrophobic so that they are more soluble at higher concentrations. In this pathway, the conversion to a hydrophilic compound is an oxidation of a 17b-hydroxyl group. These hormones are needed for sexual development in both males and females.


Pw000165 View Pathway

Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain

The electron transport chain in mitochondria leads to the transport of hydrogen ions across the inner membrane of the mitochndria, and this proton gradient is eventually used in the production of ATP. Electrons travel down a chain of electron carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane, ending with oxygen. The outer membrane of the mitochondrion is permeable to ions and other small molecules and nothing in this pathway requires a specific transporter to enter into the intermembrane space. However, the inner membrane is only permeable to water, oxygen and carbon dioxide, and all other molecules, including protons, require transport proteins. Phosphate is able to enter the mitochondrial matrix via the glucose-6-phosphate translocase, and ADP is able to enter the matrix as ATP leaves it via the ADP/ATP translocase 1 protein. Electrons donated by NADH can enter the electron transport chain as NADH dehydrogenase, known as complex I, facilitates their transfer to ubiquinone, also known as coenzyme Q10. As this occurs, the coenzyme Q10 becomes reduced to form ubiquinol, and protons are pumped from the intermembrane space to the matrix. Lower energy electrons can also be donated to complex II, which includes succinate dehydrogenase and contains FAD. These electrons move from succinic acid to the FAD in the enzyme complex, and then to coenzyme Q10, which is reduced to ubiquinol. Throughout this, succinic acid from the citric acid cycle is converted to fumaric acid, which then returns to the citric acid cycle. This step, unlike the others in the electron transport chain, does not result in any protons being pumped from the matrix to the intermembrane space. Regardless of which complex moved the electrons to coenzyme Q10, the cytochrome b-c1 complex, also known as complex III, catalyzes the movement of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c, oxidizing ubiquinol to ubiquinone and reducing cytochrome c. This process also leads to the pumping of hydrogen ions into the intermembrane space. Finally, the transfer of electrons from the reduced cytochrome c is catalyzed by cytochrome c oxidase, also known as complex IV of the electron transport chain. This reaction oxidizes cytochrome c for further electron transport, and transfers the electrons to oxygen, forming molecules of water. This reaction also allows protons to be pumped across the membrane. The proton gradient that is built up through the electron transport chain allows protons to flow through the ATP synthase proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane, providing the energy required to synthesize ATP from ADP.


Pw000052 View Pathway

Purine Metabolism

Purine is a water soluble, organic compound. Purines, including purines that have been substituted, are the most widely distributed kind of nitrogen-containing heterocycle in nature. The two most important purines are adenine and guanine. Other notable examples are hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, caffeine, uric acid and isoguanine. This pathway depicts a number of processes including purine nucleotide biosynthesis, purine degradation and purine salvage. The main organ where purine nucleotides are created is the liver. This process starts as 5-phospho-α-ribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, or PRPP, and creates inosine 5’-monophosphate, or IMP. Following a series of reactions, PRPP uses compounds such as tetrahydrofolate derivatives, glycine and ATP, and IMP is produced as a result. Glutamine PRPP amidotransferase catalyzes PRPP into 5-phosphoribosylamine, or PRA. 5-phosphoribosylamine is converted to glycinamide ribotide (GAR) then to formyglycinamide ribotide (FGAR). This set of reactions is catalyzed by a trifunctional enzyme containing GAR synthetase, GAR transformylase and AIR synthetase. FGAR is converted to formylglycinamidine-ribonucleotide (FGAM) by formylglycinamide synthase. FGAM is then converted by aminoimidzaole ribotide synthase to 5-aminoimidazole ribotide (AIR) then carboxylated by aminoimidazole ribotide carboxylase to carboxyaminoimidazole ribotide (CAIR). CAIR is then converted tosuccinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide (SAICAR) by succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide synthase followed by conversion to AICAR (via adenylsuccinate lyase) then to FAICAR (via aminoimidazole carboxamide ribotide transformylase). FAICAR is finally converted to inosine monophosphate (IMP) by IMP cyclohydrolase. Because of the complexity of this synthetic process, the purine ring is actually composed of atoms derived from many different molecules. The N1 atom arises from the amine group of Asp, the C2 and C8 atoms originate from formate, the N3 and N9 atoms come from the amide group of Gln, the C4, C5 and N7 atoms come from Gly and the C6 atom comes from CO2. IMP creates a fork in the road for the creation of purine, as it can either become GMP or AMP. AMP is generated from IMP via adenylsuccinate synthetase (which adds aspartate) and adenylsuccinate lyase. GMP is generated via the action of IMP dehydrogenase and GMP synthase. Purine nucleotides being catabolized creates uric acid. Beginning from AMP, the enzymes AMP deaminase and nucleotidase work in concert to generate inosine. Alternately, AMP may be dephosphorylate by nucleotidase and then adenosine deaminase (ADA) converts the free adenosine to inosine. The enzyme purine nucleotide phosphorylase (PNP) converts inosine to hypoxanthine, while xanthine oxidase converts hypoxanthine to xanthine and finally to uric acid. GMP and XMP can also be converted to uric acid via the action of nucleotidase, PNP, guanine deaminase and xanthine oxidase. Nucleotide creation stemming from the purine bases and purine nucleosides happens in steps that are called the “salvage pathways”. The free purine bases phosphoribosylated and reconverted to their respective nucleotides.
Showing 71 - 80 of 49832 pathways